Search Results

1 - 3 of 3 items

  • Author: Andrius Jarzemskis x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

In the world railways are organized in two ways. In one case, infrastructure management and organization of traffic and commercial activities are integrated at the level of one of the enterprise whereas in the other case the functions of the carrier and the manager of the infrastructure are separated. This article addresses approaches of different scientists and politicians on both forms. The analysis of the case of Lithuania has been carried out. The case of Lithuania is a typical one - historically the railways have had a monopoly with the infrastructure and transportation not separated. This article presents a critical view of theoretical pros and cons of both the models.

Abstract

Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission members seeking to implement MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV amendments which recognize the Baltic Sea as special are, in which discharge of uncommitted sewage from passenger ships is forbidden, must ensure that ports are equipped with adequate reception facilities. To ensure implementation of amendments of Annex IV in port of Klaipeda, the analysis framework model was defined by authors. The model evaluates the readiness of the port to changes brought by the amendments of MARPOL Annex IV. The scientific problem comes with perception of adequacy. Resolution MEPC.200(62) amending MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV states, that port reception facilities must be adequate to the needs of passenger ships using them without causing undue delay. Concept of adequacy is not defined, therefore other guidelines explaining adequacy were used: EU directive 2000/59/EC and IMO resolution MEPC.83(44) Guidelines for ensuring adequacy of port reception facilities. Based on these sources, criteria that must be met to ensure adequacy were identified and tested in article: 1) reception facilities meet needs of ships normally using them; 2) discharge of sewage does to cause undue delay; 3) reception facilities does not provide disincentive to use them; 4) facilities are accessible; 5) facilities contribute to the improvement of the marine environment.

Abstract

EU’s goal is to develop transport system which meets the economic, social and environmental requirements of society. Since first White paper on Transport in 1992 there was evolution of perception of quality and attributes of quality. The basic set of quality requirement is based on frequency, price, safety and security were dominating in 1992-2006, however since 2006 new attributes such as environment impact, and energy efficiency comes into force in European documents. However research case in Siauliai town show that it delays in user perception of quality.