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Open access

Marina Sarkele, Olegs Sabelnikovs, Indulis Vanags, Agnese Ozolina, Andrejs Skesters and Alise Silova

Abstract

Introduction. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are likely to suffer from acute respiratory failure (ARF) with a risk of developing acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe condition, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with 30 - 50% mortality. Evidence shows, that important role in ARDS pathophysiology may play an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species. Oxidative stress is well established in adult critical illnesses characterized by systemic inflammatory response.

Aim of the study was to investigate the influence of oxidative stress species on developing of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients at risk.

Materials and methods. The study was conducted in Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital ICU during 6 months in 2013 and approved by ethics committee. There were included 15 ARDS risk patients over 18 years of age with mechanical lung ventilation (MLV) over 24 hours and massive blood component transfusions, acute severe pancreatitis, pneumonia or sepsis. Blood samples were taken three times during observational period- first sample were taken just exactly after inclusion, second sample- on 4th and the last sample- on 7th day after inclusion. The developing of ARDS were diagnosed using revised diagnostic criteria according to the Berlin definition. Reactive oxygen species were measured in plasma using manual or automatic spectrophotometry.

Results. Among included patients 82.4 % were males with the mean age 49.3 years, for female 67 years. The most popular diagnosis was acute severe pneumonia (n= 5; 33.3 %), followed by patients with sepsis (n= 4; 26.7%) and acute severe pancreatitis (n= 4; 26.7%). The most informative marker of oxidative stress among all ARDS risk patients is GPx, which correlates with PaO2/ FiO2 and oxidation index (R= -0.52; p= 0.045 and R= 0.57; p= 0.027) at the 1st day of observation. At the 4th day of observation GPx shows statistically significant relation with the level of PEEP (R= 0.57; p= 0.033). Among ARDS patients we have found correlation between PaO2/FiO2 ratio and MDA+ HNE plasma levels (R= 0.69; p= 0.026) at the 1st day of observation.

Conclusion. Reactive oxygen substances causing oxidative stress shows a dynamic changes in ARDS patients. The changes of some oxidative markers are related to the increased level of hypoxemia and PEEP used in treatment of ARDS patients.

Open access

Marina Šarkele, Agnese Ozoliņa, Olegs Sabeļnikovs, Andrejs Šķesters, Alise Silova and Indulis Vanags

Abstract

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common complication characterised by severe hypoxemia, which leads to high mortality rates in ICU patients. Imbalance between oxidative stress markers like oxidants and antioxidants may play an important role in pathophysiology of the syndrome. We observed 17 ARDS patients during seven days after inclusion, with the main goal to describe dynamic changes in the level of oxidative stress markers in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We found that there are dynamic differences in the level of malondialdechyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. There were also different levels of oxidative stress markers in non-survivor compared with survivor groups. Increased level of an oxidant like a thiobarbituric acid substance with malondialdechyde (TBS_MDA) and antioxidant glutathionperoxidase (GPx) at the first day after inclusion was related with poor outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Open access

Natalja Voskresenska, Sergejs Babikovs, Jūlija Voicehovska, Andrejs Šķesters, Alise Silova, Vladimirs Voicehovskis, Renija Aleksejeva, Aivars Lejnieks and Jurijs Karpovs

Abstract

The paper presents information on pneumonia (P) patients with features of oxidative stress (OS). Identifying features of OS in patients with P is of interest not only for diagnosis, but also for monitoring of treatment efficiency. We recruited 73 patients with community-acquired P (CAP), previously healthy adults, both males and females with mean age of 68.0 ± 15.2, hospitalised, and 61 healthy control patients matched for age. For quantitative evaluation of lipid peroxidation in CAP patients, the levels of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4- hydroxynon-2-enal (HNE) were quantified. Furthermore, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and several antioxidant enzymes and selenium in plasma were determined. In CAP patients, decreased levels of GSH and plasma selenium were observed. Plasma levels of MDA, and HNE did significantly differ between patient and control groups. We also noted reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutation peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Low antioxidant enzymes activity was associated with a more severe CAP pattern. Both GSH and antioxidant enzymes may serve as markers for inflammation-related OS in CAP patients, and measurement of these biomarkers may be a valid indentifier for its management.

Open access

Jeļena Reste, Tija Zvagule, Nataļja Kurjāne, Andrejs Šķesters, Alīse Silova, Maija Eglīte, Jolanta Cīrule, Natālija Gabruševa, Andris Zīverts and Elvīra Čurbakova

Abstract

The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital) and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

Open access

Vladimirs Voicehovskis, Gunta Ancāne, Jūlija Voicehovska, Grigorijs Orļikovs, Jurijs Karpovs, Igors Ivanovs, Andrejs Šķesters, Andrejs Ancāns, Alise Silova, Tarass Ivaščenko, Jānis Micāns, Normunds Vaivads and Larisa Umnova

Increased excitotoxity in response to stressors leads to oxidative stress (OS) due to accumulation of excess reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Neuronal membrane phospholipids are especially susceptible to oxidative damage, which alters signal transduction mechanisms. The Contingent of International Operations (CIO) has been subjected to various extreme stressors that could cause Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Former studies suggest that heterogeneity due to gender, race, age, nutritional condition and variable deployment factors and stressors produce challenges in studying these processes. The research aim was to assess OS levels in the PTSD risk group in CIO. In a prospective study, 143 participants who were Latvian CIO, regular personnel, males, Europeans, average age of 27.4, with the same tasks during the mission, were examined two months before and immediately after a six-month Peace Support Mission (PSM) in Afghanistan. PCL-M questionnaire, valid Latvian language “Military” version was used for PTSD evaluation. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation intensity and malondialdehyde (MDA) as OS indicators in blood were determined. Data were processed using SPSS 20.0. The MDA baseline was 2.5582 μM, which after PSM increased by 24.36% (3.1815 μM). The GPx baseline was 8061.98 U/L, which after PSM decreased by 9.35% (7308.31 U/L). The SOD baseline was 1449.20 U/gHB, which after PSM increased by 2.89% (1491.03 U/gHB). The PTSD symptom severity (total PCL-M score) baseline was 22.90 points, which after PSM increased by 14.45% (26.21 points). The PTSD Prevalence rate (PR) baseline was 0.0357, which after PSM increased by 147.06% (0.0882). We conclude that there is positive correlation between increase of OS, PTSD symptoms severity level, and PTSD PR in a group of patients with risk of PTSD - CIO. PTSD PR depends on MDA intensity and OS severity. OS and increased free radical level beyond excitotoxity, is a possible causal factor for clinical manifestation of PTSD