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Andreja Krt Lah, Tatjana Frelih and Irena Grmek Košnik

Abstract

Background. An outbreak of gastroenteritis of etiologically unspecified origin and an outbreak of Salmonellosis occurred simultaneously in September 2011 in Tržič. The purpose of the investigation of both outbreaks was to identify the most probable source and the mode of transmission and to implement preventive measures.

Methods. In two retrospective case-control studies, the association between gastroenteritis of etiologically unspecified origin or Salmonellosis and food from a restaurant or drinking tap water were tested by univariate and multivariate analysis. The subject in the first study was a sick person with salmonellosis, and the subject in the second study was a resident that developed diarrhoea and/ or vomiting. Cases were reported by doctors, and controls were selected from healthy persons who responded to the questionnaire.

Results. A person exposed to food from the restaurant had a 24.8 times higher odds ratio (univariate analysis OR 24.8, 95% CI 7.5 to 82.3, p <0.05; multivariate analysis OR 14.7, 95% CI 3.5 - 61.3, p <0.05) for salmonellosis than non-exposed. A resident exposed to tap water from specific water source had a 3.4 times higher odds ratio (univariate analysis of OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.1 is p <0.05, multivariate analysis of RO 2.9, 95% CI 1, 7 to 5.3, p <0.05), for gastroenteritis of unspecific etiology than non-exposed. The dose response relationship was also statistically significant.

Conclusion. Analytical cases - controls studies confirmed a causal relationship between salmonellosis and food from the specific restaurant and the causal relationship between gastroenteritis of etiologically unspecified origin and drinking tap water from specific water source. Salmonella enteritidis may have entered into the restaurant through tap water

Open access

Irena Grmek Košnik, Andreja Krt Lah, Urška Dermota and Tatjana Frelih

Izvleček

Izhodišče: Oktobra 2010 smo imeli na Gorenjskem v eni izmed osnovnih šol z vrtcem izbruh stafilokokne zastrupitve s hrano.

Metode: Izvedli smo retrospektivno kohortno epidemiološko raziskavo in izračunali stopnjo obolevnosti v izbruhu ter relativno tveganje (RT) za vsako živilo. Pri obolelih smo kultivirali blato in izbruhanino. Opravili smo terenski ogled z odvzemom vzorca hrane, brisov delovnih površin na snažnost in brisa rok zaposlenih v kuhinji. V okviru usmerjenega pregleda smo trem zaposlenim v kuhinji odvzeli kužnine za mikrobiološke preiskave. Izolatom bakterije Staphylococcus aureus smo določili enterotoksine s testom aglutinacije SET RPLA (Oxoid). Za primerjavo sorodnosti bakterije S. aureus iz živila in humanih vzorcev smo opravili tipizacijo izolatov s pulzno elektroforezo (PFGE).

Rezultati: Obolelo je 73 oseb od 374 izpostavljenih. Stopnja obolevnosti je bila 19,5-odstotna. Najpogostejši bolezenski znaki so bili: bruhanje (87,7 %), bolečine v trebuhu (75,3 %), driska (64,2 %) in slabost (59,3 %). Največje relativno tveganje (RT) za zastrupitev je bilo povezano z uživanjem mesnega sira (RT= 24,2 (95 % CI 12,1-48,5; p<0,001) in krompirjeve solate (RT= 19,4 (95 % CI 10,7-35,2; p<0,001). S kože rok osebe, zaposlene v kuhinji, iz vzorca hrane in kužnin obolelih otrok smo izolirali bakterijo S. aureus, ki je izločala enterotoksina A; po občutljivosti za antibiotike se ni razlikovala od drugih; z metodo PFGE se je pokazala 96,3-odstotna sorodnost med sevi.

Zaključki: Opisana raziskava je vzorčen primer dela in ukrepanja področnega epidemiologa in mikrobiologa ob pojavu izbruha. V izbruhu smo dokazali epidemiološko povezane izolate in opredelili pomen posameznih preiskav.