Contributions to the Bryophyte Flora of Republic of Macedonia
The author presents the results of his own research of bryophyte flora carried out in years 1962-1972 in R. Macedonia. He mentioned 269 bryophyte taxa (41 liverworts and 228 mosses), among them 75 taxa (18 liverworts and 57 mosses) are reported for the first time in Republic of Macedonia. Six species are included in the Red data book of European bryophytes (ECCB 1995).
Based on floristic data and applied taxonomy there are currently 813 species and subspecies in Slovenia – 638 mosses, 173 liverworts and 2 hornworts. Based on the IUCN 3.1 criteria, which we applied to bryophytes following Hallingbäck et al. (1998), there are 164 species (20.17%) listed under threatened categories, of which 121 (18.97%) are mosses and 43 (24.57%) are liverworts; 7 of them (0.86%) are in the CR category, 83 (10.21%) in the EN category and 74 (9.10%) are listed under the VU category. There are 23 species (2.83%) in the near threatened (NT) category, while 163 species (20.05%) are data deficient (DD). The Least Concern (LC) category currently comprises 463 (56.95%) species.
In this paper author gives the results of his own bryological investigations of the phytogeographical subregion Karavanke (part of the Alpine phytogeographical region) as well as the previous reports from literature and unpublished data from LJU. In total 453 species are reported from the investigated subregion, 97 liverworts and 356 mosses. Among them 12 are reported for the first time for Slovenia (Cephalozia ambigua, Lophozia ascendens, Didymodon asperifolius, Dicranella crispa, Brachytheciastrum olympicum, Schistidium crassipilum, S. dupretii, S. elegantulum subsp. elegantulum, S. lancifolium, S. papillosum, S. robustum, S. trichodon var. trichodon), 94 species are reported for the first time for the Karavanke. 40 species are included in national Red List and 11 species in the Red Data Book of European Bryophytes (ECCB 1995).
The study gives results on new bryophyte records of Smrekovško pogorje Mts. as well as the previous reports from the literature. In total 229 species are reported from the investigated region, 173 mosses and 56 liver-worts. Among them 3 are reported for the first time for Slovenia (Sciuro-hypnum oedipodium, Calypogeia integristipula, Lophozia sudetica), 20 species are reported for the first time for the Kamniško-Savinjske Alps (Alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia). 26 species are included in the national Red List and 4 species in the Red Data Book of European Bryophytes (ECCB 1995), in the rare (R) category: Scapania verrucosa, Brachythecium geheebii, Fissidens asplenioides and Paraleucobryum sauteri.
Based on our analysis of a large number of relevés of communities of moist rock crevices in western Slovenia (southern Julian Alps, northern part of the Trnovski Gozd Plateau) we described several new syntaxa with the endemic Primula carniolica. The most unique in terms of ecology is a hygrophytic chasmophytic community classified into the association Astrantio carniolicae-Primuletum carniolicae, which is, together with similar hygrophytic associations Astrantio carniolicae-Pinguiculetum alpinae and Campanulo cespitosae-Saxifragetum aizoidis, associations Phyteumato columnae-Primuletum carniolicae, Primulo carniolicae-Potentilletum clusianae and the subassociation Primuletum carniolicae violetosum biflorae, temporarily classified into the alliance Cystopteridion and order Potentilletalia caulescentis. Only the new association Paederoto luteae-Potentilletum caulescentis is classified into the alliance Physoplexido comosae-Saxifragion petraeae. The elevational range of chasmophytic communities with Primula carniolica is 200 to 1460 m a.s.l. Species that most commonly accompany Primula carniolica in rock crevices include Paederota lutea, Phyteuma scheuchzeri subsp. columnae, Sesleria caerulea, Aster bellidiastrum and moss Orthothecium rufescens.
In the alpine belt of the Julian Alps (glacial cirque Na Jezerih under Mt. Veliki Rokav, Jarečica, the Mangart Saddle and Prodi under Mt. Mangart as well as Mt. Plešivec in the rock wall of Loška Stena) we studied the phytosociology and ecology of snow-bed vegetation with dominating flowering plants Salix herbacea, Luzula alpinopilosa, Gnaphalium supinum, Soldanella pusilla and Salix retusa, and numerous moss species. Based on the comparison with similar snow-bed communities in the Central, Eastern and Southern Alps we described a new association Salicetum retuso-herbaceae and classified it into the alliance Salicion herbaceae and class Salicetea herbaceae. We determined several successional stages of snow-bed vegetation on mixed calcareous-silicate bedrock that we treat as variants, in two relevés also the initial association Polytrichetum sexangularis.
Campanula tommasiniana is a typical chasmophyte occupying calcareous rock crevices and cracks along a wide range of ecological gradients, demonstrating a high degree of ecological plasticity and stress tolerance with regards to abiotic factors. Generally, three ecologically and floristically distinct groups of stands were recognized and typified according to a sigmatistic approach: (a) Seslerio juncifoliae-Campanuletum tommasinianae ass. nov., with stands occupying higher elevated sites fully exposed to sun and strong winds; (b) Seslerio autumnalis-Campanuletum tommasinianae ass. nov., representing stands predominantly developed within thermophytic beech stands, semi- to fully- -shaded by the tree canopy; (c) Cystopteri fragilis-Campanuletum tommasinianae, sciophytic, stands adapted to moisture and coldwith high frequency and coverage of bryophytes. Results of DCA analyses using a unimodal model suggest that Campanula tommasiniana is primarily a plant of open and exposed sites of higher elevation despite being most frequently found in rock crevices within thermophytic and altimontane beech forests.
We conducted a phytosociological study of the communities hosting the rare and endangered fern Adiantum capillus-veneris in the foothills of the Julian Alps, in Karst and in Istria. Based on a comparison with similar communities elsewhere in the southern Alps (northern Italy) we classified most of the recorded stands into the syntaxa Eucladio-Adiantetum eucladietosum and -cratoneuretosum commutati. Releves from the southern Julian Alps, located in comparatively slightly colder and moister local climate and the dolomite bedrock are classified into the new subassociation -hymenostylietosum recurvirostri subass. nova. Stands with the abundant occurrence of the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, are classified in to the new subassociation -conocephaletosum conici subass. nova. Stands in conglomerate rock shelters along the Soča at Solkan are classified into the new association Phyteumato columnae-Adiantetum ass. nova, a community of transitional character between the classes Adiantetea capilli-veneris and Asplenietea trichomanis.