In the first part of this paper I consider the Gricean account of communication, as structured by the Cooperative Principle and the four maxims. Several authors, including Jean Goodwin , Fred Kauffeld , Michael Gilbert , Ernie Lepore and Mathew Stone , among others, argue that the Gricean view of communication fails in as much as it pretends to offer an account of all such human interactions. As Goodwin and Kauffeld suggest, a more promising starting point is to consider the variety of contextually determined presumptions that we make about speakers and that we rely upon in interpreting utterances. These presumptions are established in various ways, and are dropped, or defeated, in certain conditions. In order to clarify these aspects we need to inquiry into the nature of presumptions. I argue that Kauffeld’s , ,  account of presumptions is useful in this context. In the second part of the paper I look at what this account tells us about how, and in what conditions, presumptions in communication are rebutted.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss two phenomena related to the semantics of definite descriptions: that of incomplete uses of descriptions, and that of the underdetermination of referential uses of descriptions. The Russellian theorist has a way of accounting for incomplete uses of descriptions by appealing to an account of quantifier domain restriction, such as the one proposed in Stanley and Szabó (2000a). But, I argue, the Russellian is not the only one in a position to appeal to such an account of incomplete uses of descriptions. Proponents of other theories, such as the Fregean, which does not treat descriptions as quantifiers, might benefit from this account of domain restriction. In the second part of the paper I discuss referential uses of incomplete definite descriptions. Relative to such uses, Wettstein (1981) and others have argued that the Russellian theory faces a problem of underdetermination of semantic content. Neale (2004) has replied to this objection showing why it does not pose a threat to the Russellian theory. Again, I argue that not only the Russellian, but also the Fregean can subscribe to Neale’s (2004) suggestion.
The CNC (Computer numerical control) is a machine that processes different kinds of materials at different types of precisions, determined by the system used to realize the transmission from the motor to the axes. In our project, we used the screw nut transmission because it offers a great precision and it has an optimal price-quality ratio.
Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate possible associations between catalase C262T (CAT C262T), glutathione peroxidase 1 Pro198Leu (GPX1 Pro198Leu), manganese superoxide dismutase Ala16Val (MnSOD Ala16Val) gene polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk (NHL) in a Romanian population and the five-year overall survival rate of the NHL patients.
Methods: We included in this case-control study 406 individuals, divided into two groups: the control group (n=315) and the patients group (n=91). The DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and amplified using specific techniques.
Results: The variant homozygous genotype of GPX1 Pro198Leu represents a risk factor for NHL development and no associations regarding the risk for NHL were found for MnSOD Ala16Val and CAT C262T gene polymorphisms. Two of the studied polymorphisms were associated with the overall survival rate thus: negative association regarding MnSOD Ala16Val, associated with higher overall survival rate and a positive one regarding CAT C262T, associated with lower overall survival rate.
Conclusions: According to our results, the mentioned polymorphisms may be considered as susceptible markers of the five-year overall survival rate for NHL patients. Future studies with a larger number of patients are needed to confirm our results.
Background: Nowadays, cytogenetics and molecular genetics, but not only, are mandatory in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) management, as a consequence of their impact on AML pathogenesis, classification, risk-stratification, prognosis and treatment. Objective: The aim of our study was to present our algorithm for the analysis of copy number changes, aneuploidies and somatic mutations focusing on a rare AML case positive for four somatic mutations. Methods: Cytogenetic analysis, Multiplex Ligationdependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis, somatic mutation analysis (for FLT3 ITD, FLT3 D835, DNMT3A R882 and NPM1 c.863_864ins) by using several PCR techniques and also next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis were performed. Results: Cytogenetic analysis did not reveal structural or numerical chromosomal anomalies. The patient’s DNA showed no copy number changes or aberrations (CNAs) following the MLPA analysis. By using several molecular technologies we found four mutations: FLT3-ITD, FLT3 D835 (c.2504A>T, D835V), DNMT3A R882C, and NPM1 c.863_864insTCTG. Challenges, benefits, applications and the limitations of each molecular technique used for the investigation of the mentioned mutation, and not only, are also described. Conclusion: All these techniques can be useful in the diagnosis of AML patients, each of them covering the limits of the other technique. New strategies for a positive, fast, accurate and reliable diagnosis are mandatory in cases with AML.