This article aims at picturing the image of women as portrayed in Romanian advertising during the 1930s. Torn between forward-looking associations fighting for equal rights and traditionalist tendencies confining the woman to the household, the female image, as captured by adverts, underwent spectacular changes, as a reflection of the mentalities and implications generated by the historical and social background.
Adela Nechifor-Boilă, Ancuţa Elena Zahan, Oana Căpraru, Ramona Cătană, Andreea Fișus and Nicole Berger
Introduction: In this study, we aimed to investigate the importance of some distinctive morphological parameters in predicting the extrathyroidal extension, as marker of aggressiveness, in a series of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) cases. Material and methods: All consecutive PTMC cases, sized ≥ 5mm, registered at the Department of Pathology, Tîrgu-Mureș Emergency County Hospital from January 2002 to December 2013 were re-evaluated. The following histological features were noted: the multifocality, the extrathyroidal extension, the histologic variant, the tumor’s border (well circumscribed versus infiltrative), the PTC nuclear features (well developed versus subtle), the tumor associated stromal reaction (fibrosis/desmoplasia/sclerosis versus none of these changes), the presence of “plump pink” cells, psammoma bodies, intratumoral lymphocytic infiltrate, cystic change, back-to-back arrangement, intratumoral multinucleated giant cells and lymph node involvement. Results: Our study included 72 PTMC cases, summing up to a total of 80 PTMC foci. We have shown that extrathyroidal extension is significantly associated with the presence of “plump pink”cells (p=0.0019), well developed nuclear features of PTC (p=0.018) and tumor associated stromal reaction (fibrosis/dezmoplazia/sclerosis) (p<0.0001). Other parameters were more prevalent among PTMC foci with extrathyroidal extension, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Our results pointed out the importance of a distinct set of morphological microscopical parameters, predictive for extrathyroidal extension in PTMC cases (“plump pink” cells, well developed PTC nuclear features, tumor associated stromal reaction, infiltrative tumor borders and conventional PTC histology). All these parameters are important to be mentioned in the histopathological reports, as they might be associated with a more aggressive biological behaviour.
Ancuța Elena Zahan, Adela Nechifor Boilă, Ionela Pașcanu, Septimiu Voidăzan, Ramona Cătană, Andreea Fișus and Angela Borda
Background: Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) defines a group of papillary thyroid carcinomas, incidentally discovered, measuring 1 cm or less. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence and the pathological characteristics of PTMCs in our institution in the last 25 years, with special emphasis on the prognostic factors related to PTMCs. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective, cohort study on 255 PTMCs, registered in the Department of Pathology, Tîrgu-Mureş Emergency County Hospital between 1990 and 2014. Results: A significant increase in the incidence of PTMCs was observed in the 2004-2014 period, compared to 1990-2003 (7.6%, 229 PTMCs/3005 thyroid specimens vs. 1.2%, 23 PTMCs/1885 thyroid specimens). Conventional PTMCs accounted for most of PTMC cases (n=123 cases, 48.2%), followed by the follicular variant of PTC (n=117 cases, 45.9%). The increasing incidence of PTMCs was associated with a significant increase in the routine number of blocks sampled per case over the study period (R2 =0.72, p < 0.001). By means of the univariate and multivariate analysis, three risk factors were predictive for extrathyroidal extension in PTMCs: multifocality (Odds ratio [OR] 4.97, p-0.002), tumor size ≥ 5mm (OR 8.97, p-0.008) and lymph node involvement (OR 17.66 p<0.005). Conclusion: The incidence of PTMCs has revealed a significant increasing trend in our institution over the last 25 years. Multifocality, lymph node involvement and tumor size ≥ 5mm were found to be risk factors for extrathyroidal extension. These prognostic factors must be evaluated and clearly mentioned in the pathological report, to help a correct estimation of biological potential of the lesion and an appropriate postoperative management.