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  • Author: Andreas Müller x
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Zusammenfassung

Der interkommunale Wettbewerb europäischer Metropolen, die Angleichungstendenzen funktionaler städtischer Leistungsmerkmale sowie der wachsende gesellschaftliche Trend zur Individualisierung und Kommunikation der eigenen Identität befördern die Bedeutung des Stadtimages als Faktor der Standortwahl von qualifizierten Arbeitskräften, Touristen und Unternehmen. Städte werden zunehmend als Instrumente zur Definition der eigenen Persönlichkeit und als Ausdrucksmittel des eigenen Lebensstils verstanden. Analog zur Bedeutung persönlichkeitsbezogener Merkmale für die Kaufentscheidung von Marken aus dem Konsumgüterbereich gewinnt der symbolische Nutzen damit auch als Entscheidungskriterium der Stadt- und Standortwahl an Relevanz. Der vorliegende Beitrag diskutiert das Konzept des symbolischen Markennutzens im Stadtkontext und zeigt, dass diesen Nutzenaspekten in der deutschsprachigen Stadtmarketingdiskussion bislang nur wenig Beachtung geschenkt wird. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das in der englischsprachigen Fachliteratur intensiv diskutierte Konzept des place branding vorgestellt, in dessen Rahmen das Image von Städten in den Fokus aller stadtbezogenen Marketingmaßnahmen rückt. Der Autor vertritt die These, dass das symbolische Stadtimage das Ergebnis kommunikativer Aushandlungsprozesse darstellt, deren Ursprünge in realen Handlungen, Aktivität und Ereignissen liegen, die in einer Stadt vorkommen. Mit der Beschreibung des kommunikativen Potenzials des visuellen Stadtbildes werden abschließend Ansatzpunkte zur Entwicklung symbolischer Stadtimages vorgestellt.

Abstract

introduction

Adolescents experience important changes in their physical, emotional, social and behavioural development. It is known that adolescents wish to be accepted by their peers, strive for independence and are prone to experiment. The challenge for adolescents with haemophilia is the need for taking responsibility for managing their illness and learning to comply with recommended treatment. This study aimed to investigate the process of adherence to treatment in adolescents with haemophilia.

Methods

Grounded theory was used, based on one-on-one interviews (n=13) with adolescents with haemophilia.

Results

The results include the core category “maturing self-competence” which represents the continuous developmental process from birth to teens with regard to haemophilia care. Three constitutive categories “living in a haemophiliac’s body”, “sharing with others” and “being protected and walking in faith” represent basic experiences in an adolescent's life. Further emergent categories include “becoming and staying informed”, “becoming and staying an expert”, “being in action”, “living between oblivion and awareness”, and “finding peace”. The adolescent stage “maturing self-competence” and their assessment of the situation at hand form the basis for decisions concerning adherence.

Conclusion

Considering adolescents to be competent managers with regard to their disease, and including them in a partnership decision-making process for the therapeutic regime are the most important requisites for effective adherence.

Abstract

In this work, we report on the construction, training and functional assessment of an electronic nose (called ‘E-Nose’) that is capable of monitoring the microbial contamination onboard space ships under microgravity conditions. To this end, a commercial electronic nose was modified to allow for the sampling of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted from relevant bacterial and fungi species. Training of the modified ‘E-Nose’ was performed by establishing an MVOC database consisting of two Gram-positive bacteria strains (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus warneri) and two fungi strains (Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium expansum). All these strains are known to exist onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and to form important parts of its microbial contamination. All cultures were grown on four kinds of structural materials also in use onboard the ISS. The MVOCs emitted during the different growth phases of these cultures were monitored with an array of ten different metal oxide gas sensors inside the ‘E-Nose’. Principal component analysis of the array data revealed that B. subtilis and S. warneri form separate clusters in an optimized score plot, while the two fungi strains of A. versicolor and P. expansum form a large common cluster, well discriminated against to the bacteria clusters.

Abstract

Background

Elderly patients often need post-acute care after hospital discharge. Involvement of social workers can positively affect the discharge planning process.

Aim

To investigate the effect of screening patients at risk for post-acute care needs by social workers on time with respect to social workers’ notification, length of stay and delays in discharge compared to usual care.

Methods

Cluster randomized stepped wedge trial design for five clusters (wards) and two steps (control to intervention) was used. A total of 400 patients (200 per period) with high risk of post-acute care needs (defined as Post-Acute Care Discharge score, PACD ≥ 7) were included. Social workers performed a screening to decide about self-referral to their services (intervention period), which was compared to a highly structured standard SW notification by physicians and nurses (control period). A Generalized Estimating Equations model adjusted the clustering and baseline differences.

Results

A total of 139 patients were referred to social services (intervention: n = 76; control: n = 63). Time to social workers’ notification was significantly shorter in the intervention period when adjusted for all the differences in baseline (Mdn 1.2 vs 1.7, Beta = -0.73, 95%-CI 1.39 to -0.09). Both the length of stay and the delayed discharge time in nights showed no significant differences (Mdn 10.0 vs 9.1, Beta = -0.12, 95%-CI 0.46 to .22 nights 95%-CI, resp. Mdn 0.0 vs 0.0, Beta = .11, 95%-CI -0.64 to 0.86).

Conclusion

Screening speeded up social workers’ notification but did not accelerate the discharge processes. The screening by social workers might show process improvement in settings with less structured discharge planning.