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Nina-Ioana Şincu, Lucia Carmen Chiriac, Marta Andrea Fodor, Andrea Incze and Simona Băţagă

Abstract

Background. Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially at advanced stages of HIV infection and low CD4+ T-lymphocytes levels, were reported to be less frequently co-infected with Helicobacter pylori than general population, according to literature data. Purpose: to study Helicobacter pylori infection in HIV-positive hosts with digestive complaints. Methods: retrospective, analytical, case-control study (November 2011 - December 2013), upon two groups of patients with gastro-intestinal symptoms tested for Helicobacter pylori stool antigen at the Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Clinical County Hospital Mureş. Group A included 44 HIV-positive patients, group B: 58 HIV-negative subjects. We first compared groups A and B regarding the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection. Group A was afterwards divided into two sub-groups, according to the status of Helicobacter pylori infection: group A1: 5 Helicobacter pylori-positive subjects, group A2: 39 Helicobacter pylori-negative ones. We collected information regarding CD4+ T-lymphocytes level, HIV-RNA plasma viral load, previous antibiotic and antiretroviral therapy, co-morbidities, comparing A1 and A2 subgroups. Data were processed using GraphPad Prism 5 programme. Results. The frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection was 11.36% among HIV-positive patients and 13.79% in HIV-negative ones, without statistically significant difference. We found no statistically significant differences between subgroups A1 and A2 regarding CD4+ T-lymphocytes level, HIV-RNA plasma viral load, antibiotic / antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions. Though Helicobacter pylori infection may represent one of the causes of gastro-intestinal symptoms in HIV-positive patients, its frequency did not differ to that registered in the general population, in our study.

Open access

Brîndușa Țilea, Septimiu Voidăzan, Rodica Bălașa, Adina Huțanu and Andrea Fodor

Abstract

Background: During the acute inflammatory process, the CXCL13 chemokine plays an important role in B cell recruitment within the central nervous system (CNS).

Objective: The objective of the study consisted of the evaluation of CXCL13 chemokine cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels in patients with acute infectious and non-infectious neurological diseases correlated with pleocytosis and CSF protein levels.

Material and method: This retrospective study was conducted over one year and included 72 patients. Thirty-eight patients (52.8%) suffering from infectious neurological disease, acute viral and bacterial meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and 34 patients (44.2%) diagnosed with non-infectious neurological diseases.

CXCL13 chemokine CSF and plasma levels were determined through the ELISA technique with the Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 kit. CSF cell count, glucose and protein levels, along with anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were monitored using the ELISA technique.

Results: CXCL13 chemokine levels in the CSF of patients with acute infectious neurological diseases showed a median value of 23.07 pg/mL, which was significantly higher in comparison with the median value of 11.5 pg/mL of patients with noninfectious neurological diseases (p-0.03). CXCL13 median plasma concentration in patients with infectious neurological diseases was 108.1 pg/mL, in comparison with the second patient category, 50.7 pg/ml (p-0.001). We observed a statistically significant association between CXCL13 concentrations, CSF cell count and proteins. The higher the CXCL13 chemokine level, the more increased the cell count was.

Conclusions: CXCL13 levels in the CSF was significantly increased in patients with acute infectious neurological diseases compared with patients with non-infectious diseases. Moreover, CXCL13 chemokine concentration was significantly correlated with the number of cells and proteins in the CSF of patients suffering from neuroinfections.

Open access

Brîndușa Țilea, Rodica Bălașa, Andrea Fodor and Țilea Ioan

Abstract

Lyme neuroborreliosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensulato group. Neurological clinical manifestations usually present a steady evolution and are different in patients from Europe compared to those from America, possibly due to vector agents and different bacterial species. Various diagnostic markers were studied in consideration of a clear or possible diagnosis of the disease, because evolution and complications depend on early diagnosis and initiation of therapy. The isolation of the bacterium is difficult, microscopic examination and the bacterial dezoxiribonucleic acid amplification shows low sensitivity. However, the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis is mainly based on serological methods that have a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. A correct diagnosis can be performed by strictly respecting clinical guidelines and protocols and carefully interpreting the serological tests. The presence of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid with evidence of intrathecal antibody production is the gold standard diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early administration of antibiotic treatment (third generation cephalosporins, cyclins, aminopenicillins) can produce the remission of neurological symptoms, the eradication of spirochetes in acute phase of the disease, thus avoiding the development of the chronic disease.

Open access

Marta Andrea Fodor, Iringó Erzsébet Zaharia-Kézdi, Brînduşa Ţilea, Anca Georgescu, Cristina Gîrbovan, Andrea Incze, Nina Şincu, Adina Huţanu, Enikő Nemes-Nagy and Carmen Luminita Chiriac

Open access

Enikő Nemes-Nagy, Zita Fazakas, Victor Balogh-Sămărghițan, Zsuzsánna Simon-Szabó, Lóránd Dénes, Cosmina Cristina Uzun, Márta Andrea Fodor, Mariana Cornelia Tilinca, Deborah Reid and Trefor Higgins

Abstract

This parameter’s results accuracy has a special importance in the management of diabetic patients since targets for optimal glycemic control are established using HbA1c values. Several error sources can influence the obtained value, some of them can be counteracted (ex. pipetting errors, storage), and others should be taken into consideration at the interpretation of the result (ex. presence of hemoglobin variants). The aim of this study was to compare four chromatographic methods regarding the costs and the influence of certain error sources on the accuracy of the result. Materials and methods: Samples and controls were analyzed using Variant I, Micromat II and In2it (Bio-Rad) systems, and the BIOMIDI reagent kit for HbA1c measurement. Results: Positive correlation could be observed comparing the results obtained using different methods, except the patients presenting elevated HbF. Pipetting errors modify the results up to 5% in case of Variant I, and up to 10% in case of Micromat II in the tested range. One day of improper storage at room temperature causes 3% deviation from the actual value using the Variant I analyzer and 5% in case of Micromat II and In2it equipment. As a conclusion, depending on the number of samples, automated chromatographic analyzers are the most appropriate equipments for the determination of HbA1c.