The prevalence of obesity is rising, becoming a medical problem worldwide. Also GERD incidence is higher in obese patients compared with normal weight, with an increased risk of 2.5 of developing symptoms and erosive esophagitis. Different treatment modalities have been proposed to treat obese patients, but bariatric surgery due to its complex interactions via anatomic, physiologic and neurohormonal changes achieved the best long-term results, with sustained weight loss and decrease of complications and mortality caused by obesity. The bariatric surgical procedures can be restrictive: laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or malabsorptive-restrictive such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These surgical procedures may influence esophageal motility and lead to esophageal complications like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and erosive esophagitis. From the literature we know that the RYGB can ameliorate GERD symptoms, and some bariatric procedures were finally converted to RYGB because of refractory reflux symptoms. For LAGB the results are good at the beginning, but some patients experienced new reflux symptoms in the follow-up period. Recently LSG has become more popular than other complex bariatric procedures, but some follow-up studies report a high risk of GERD after it. This article reviews the results published after LSG regarding gastroesophageal reflux and the mechanisms responsible for GERD in morbidly obese subjects.
Introduction: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a popular weight loss surgery technique, but the impact on esophageal physiology and esophagogastric junction is still debatable. The aim of our study was to evaluate the manometric changes of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) after LSG in order to indicate LES manometry pre- procedure.
Methods: In a prospective study we evaluated clinically, with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and high-resolution esophageal manometry 45 morbidly obese patients before, and 6-12 months after LSG.
Results: The BMI (body mass index) decreased from 46.28±5.79 kg/m2 to 32.28±4.65 kg/m2 postoperatively (p <0.01), with a reduction of ~14 kg/m2 of BMI, 39.9 (±11.9) kg body weight and 29.9 (± 6.2)% of the TWL (Total Weight Loss index), in a median interval of 7.9 months. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) prevalence increased from 17.8% to 31.1% postoperatively, with new GERD onset in 22.2%, but mild symptomatology (the median GERDHRQL score increased from 1.56 to 2.84 points). Postoperatory reflux was associated with lower esophageal sphincter (LES) hypotonia, shortening of LES length and IIGP (increased intragastric pressure). Hiatal hernia repair rate was 17.8%, and proton pump inhibitor consumption 20%. After weight loss, the 10 cases of esophagitis discovered preoperatively cured, but 3 patients were diagnosed with de novo esophagitis. The prevalence of manometric dysmotility after LSG was 28.9%, lower than before surgery (44.4%).
Conclusion: Even if GERD remains the main limitation of LSG, the high-resolution esophageal manometry has proved useful and should be implemented in morbidly obese evaluation protocol, to better select the bariatric procedure.