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Chinezu Laura, Trouillas Jacqueline, Loghin Andrada and Borda Angela

Abstract

Introduction: The morphologic diagnosis of pituitary adenomas (PA) is based on immunohistochemistry (IHC). In Romania, IHC diagnosis of PA is restricted, all of the specific antibodies being very expensive. A histochemical staining, Herlant’s tetrachrome (HTCS), was described several years ago, but it was not widely used for diagnostic purposes because of technical difficulties. The aim of this paper is to bring into discussion this staining, to highlight its benefits, to improve the technical procedures and to establish a protocol, which combining both HTCS and IHC, facilitates the diagnosis of PA and, especially, substantially reduces the costs. Methods: HTCS was performed using normal pituitary glands. The optimal time of staining and the optimal concentration of different solutions were established for each step of the staining. Results: The improved technical procedure of HTCS is described. The staining features of all cellular types of the pituitary gland are depicted and illustrated: the chromophore cells, GH-secreting cells stained in orange, PRL-secreting cells in red-violet and ACTH-cells in dark blue, while cromophobe cells stained light blue. These staining features can be extrapolated to the diagnosis of PAs, as they consist of a proliferation of such cells. Conclusion: HTCS’s benefit is in functional PAs: it can identify GH, PRL, ACTH and TSH-adenomas, according to the cell type staining. A two-step diagnostic protocol is proposed, allowing the use of two, maximum three antibodies, instead of six: first step HTCS, and second step IHC

Open access

I.A. Nechifor-Boilă, Angela Borda, Andrada Loghin, Adela Nechifor-Boilă and C. Chibelean

Abstract

Objective: Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) is the main sequence in the multiparametric prostate MRI protocol together with T2 and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1, leading to detection rates up to 60% in prostate cancer diagnosis. However, the use of intravenous contrast can have severe side-effects, making the use of unenhanced MRI sequences essential. The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility and efficiency of DWI as a standalone MRI technique for prostate cancer diagnosis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study at our department (09.2014-05.2015) and formed a study lot consisting in five prostate cancer patients that were scheduled for radical prostatectomy. Multiparametric MRI was performed (with DWI and T2 sequences) and the images were interpreted according to the PI-RADS system. The final histopathological result after prostatectomy served as gold standard. Results: A series of 9 lesions were detected and analyzed on DWI. At qualitative interpretation, DWI had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 50%. The corresponding positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.71 and 0.286, respectively (p=0.417). ADC analysis revealed a mean value of 1.2*10-3mm2/s for the benign lesions while the corresponding value was 0.8*10-3 for the malignant ones, regardless of tumor size and Gleason scoring. Conclusion: DWI is a feasible technique in the current clinical environment, with a good sensitivity and a medium specificity. Furthermore, an association to the anatomical T2 sequence could enhance the diagnostic efficiency of DWI and should be assessed in larger studies.

Open access

Edith Dee, Andrada Loghin, Tamas Toth, Adrian Năznean and Angela Borda

Abstract

Introduction: Glomus tumors are rare benign mesenchymal neoplasms accounting for only 2% of all types of soft tissue tumors. Commonly located in the peripheral soft tissues, they are most frequently encountered in the subungual areas of fingers and toes, and very rarely in visceral organs due to the absence of glomus bodies. To date, 22 cases of primary renal glomus tumors have been described in the literature, of which 17 benign, with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, three cases of malignant glomus tumor, and two cases with uncertain malignant potential. Case report: We report the 18th case of a benign glomus tumor of the kidney in a 49-year-old female patient, presenting the microscopic appearance (round, uniform cells with indistinct borders, scant finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei lacking prominent nucleoli, arranged in solid sheets, accompanied by slit-like vascular spaces), the immunohistochemical profile (tumor cells showed immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin, vimentin, as well as for CD34; they were negative for AE1/AE3, desmin, HMB-45, S-100 protein, renin, and chromogranin), and the differential diagnosis of this rare entity (juxtaglomerular tumor, angiomyolipoma, hemangioma, epithelioid leyomioma, solitary fibrous tumor, carcinoid tumor, and paraganglioma). Conclusion: Primary renal glomus tumors are rare tumors that radiologically can mimic other mesenchymal renal neoplasm. Accurate diagnosis is based on the microscopic appearance and especially the characteristic immunophenotype.

Open access

Radu-Alexandru Prișcă, Andrada Loghin, Horea-Gheorghe Gozar, Cosmin Moldovan, Tekla Mosó, Zoltán Derzsi and Angela Borda

Abstract

Objective: The mechanism by which the ureter propels urine towards the bladder has a myogenic origin, through peristaltic contractions. This pyeloureteral autorhythmicity is generated by specialized, electrically active cells, the interstitial cells of Cajal, located in the proximal regions of the upper urinary tract. The aim of this study was to describe the exact location and the distribution of interstitial Cajal cells in the human upper urinary tract and to analyze their normal number and morphology. This is a preliminary study, which will allow the study of these cells in different urinary tract pathologies.

Material and Method: Urinary tract fragments were sampled at different levels, from 13 autopsy cases. Cases with clinical evidence of renal disease, and with histological changes in the kidney or in the urinary tract tissue samples, visible in hematoxylin-eosin staining, were excluded. The interstitial Cajal cells were highlighted with anti-CD117 antibody, immunohistochemically.

Results: Cajal cells were indirectly highlighted by the presence of a finely granulated cytoplasm indicating immunoreactivity. These cells were spindle-shaped or stellate, with cytoplasmic extensions at one or both poles of the cell and large oval nucleus. We found that interstitial Cajal cells were located at all upper urinary tract levels, with a higher predominance in the calyces and pyelon. Interstitial Cajal cells were observed mostly between the two layers of the muscularis, but also between the muscle bundles. Most often, these cells were parallel to the muscle fibers.

Conclusion: Our study describes the method of detection of interstitial Cajal cells in normal human urinary tract. These results can be used to analyze the number, morphology and the location of these cells in different congenital pathologies, such as vesicoureteral reflux, pyeloureteral junction obstruction or primary obstructive megaureter.

Open access

IA Nechifor-Boila, H Suciu, Loghin Andrada, Borda Angela, A Maier, Martha Orsolya and C Chibelean

Abstract

Surgery for renal cell carcinomas with tumor thrombus extending in the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) can be particularly challenging, especially in the retrohepatic and intraatrial situations (T3b and T3c). Classically, these tumors require the intraoperative use of cardio-pulmonary by-pass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), that can result in specific complications (stroke, platelet dysfunction), with increased postoperative morbidity rates.

In urological practice, a particular IVC preparation method is currently in use, allowing full control both upon the IVC and its tributaries. It is derived from the “piggy-back” liver transplantation technique and implies the resection of all hepatic ligaments, leaving the hepatic vascular connections intact. This procedure is joined by a form of veno-venous bypass (between the right atrium and the infrarenal IVC) that allows a constant central venous pressure (by assuring blood return), with less bleeding and without the need for CPB and DHCA (avoiding, in this way, their inherent complications). All in all, these recently-introduced procedures can offer better thrombus control, improved oncologic outcomes and smaller complication rates. We aim to present a case of borderline T3b/T3c renal tumor that was successfully treated in our university center using these techniques.