Energy Consumption and Indoor Air Quality of Different Ventilation Possibilities in a New Apartment Building
The paper focuses on natural ventilation systems in new buildings. There is particular interest in heat energy consumption and indoor air quality with different ventilation possibilities. Indoor air quality measurements during different ventilation solutions were conducted in a new apartment building. The results of this paper show that, by applying some common ventilation solutions, the consumption of heat energy for heating the cold incoming air can reach up to 0,86 MWh/month in a 10 m2 room in the coldest months of winter.
Andra Blumberga, Lelde Timma and Dagnija Blumberga
When the renewable energy is used, the challenge is match the supply of intermittent energy with the demand for energy therefore the energy storage solutions should be used. This paper is dedicated to hydrogen accumulation from wind sources. The case study investigates the conceptual system that uses intermitted renewable energy resources to produce hydrogen (power-to-gas concept) and fuel (power-to-liquid concept). For this specific case study hydrogen is produced from surplus electricity generated by wind power plant trough electrolysis process and fuel is obtained by upgrading biogas to biomethane using hydrogen. System dynamic model is created for this conceptual system. The developed system dynamics model has been used to simulate 2 different scenarios. The results show that in both scenarios the point at which the all electricity needs of Latvia are covered is obtained. Moreover, the methodology of system dynamics used in this paper is white-box model that allows to apply the developed model to other case studies and/or to modify model based on the newest data. The developed model can be used for both scientific research and policy makers to better understand the dynamic relation within the system and the response of system to changes in both internal and external factors.
Martins Pelss, Andra Blumberga and Agris Kamenders
Thermal Bridge Impact on the Heating Demand in a Low-Energy House
Thermal bridges typically occur at the junction of different building components where it is difficult to achieve continuity in the thermal insulation layer. In this paper thermal bridges are investigated in the first one-family low-energy house in Latvia. The proportion of the overall heat loss due to thermal bridging is determined based on the results from a numerical calculation method described in the standard LVS EN ISO 10211 and from the simplified calculation method given in the standard LVS EN ISO 14683. In this paper the software tool THERM is used for two-dimensional thermal bridge model simulations. The results suggest that 7.7 % of the total heat transmission losses occur due to thermal bridges.
Uldis Bariss, Gatis Bazbauers, Andra Blumberga and Dagnija Blumberga
Increased energy efficiency of the building sector is high on the list of priorities for energy policy since better energy efficiency would help to reduce impact on climate change and increase security of energy supply. One aim of the present study was to find a relative effect of growth of demand for energy services due to changes in income, energy consumption per unit of demand due to technological development, changes in electricity price and household income on household electricity consumption in Latvia. The method applied included system dynamics modeling and data from a household survey regarding the relationship between electricity saving activities and the electricity cost-income ratio. The results revealed that, in direct contrast to the expected, a potential reduction of the electricity consumption is rather insensitive to electricity price and electricity cost-income ratio, and that the efficiency of technologies could be the main drivers for future electricity savings. The results suggest that support to advancement of technologies and faster replacement of inefficient ones rather than influencing the energy price could be effective energy policy measures. The model, developed in the study could be used in similar assessments in other countries.
Jevgenijs Selivanovs, Dagnija Blumberga, Jelena Ziemele, Andra Blumberga and Aiga Barisa
This paper presents results of experimental research on wood chips and sawdust drying in a rotary dryer. Empirical models for the assessment of two dependent parameters of the drying process were created based on the results of experimental data.
The mathematical description of the relationship between the independent variable - reduced sawdust moisture content - and dependent variable - specific fuel consumption - is represented by a linear equation.
Janis Ikaunieks, Liga Mezmale, Aivars Zandeckis, Jelena Pubule, Andra Blumberga and Ivars Veidenbergs
Non-thermal Plasma for VOC Treatment in Flue Gases
The paper discusses non-thermal plasmas, their generation and characteristics, formation mechanisms of ozone and the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the experimental part, undecane (C11H24 as model VOCs) was treated with assistance of low temperature plasma at an atmospheric pressure which was generated in the so-called stack reactor. The gas composition was 13% of oxygen in nitrogen with impurities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and undecane. The formation of by-products, as well as the removal efficiency, were investigated.
Mārcis Zariņš, Andra Blumberga, Māris Klaviņš and Viesturs Melecis
This focus of the study was on system dynamic models that could be useful for modelling environmental processes in Lake Engure. The paper considers the system dynamic model development principles, the most important elements and structure. The aim of the study was to describe possible methods of ecosystem process modelling that allow to represent the actual state of ecosystems and provide opportunities to predict further processes. The methods of ecosystem modelling considered in the paper reveal interactive factors of anthropogenic and environmental processes that influence changes in ecosystems. System dynamic models indicate not only interactions between various factors in the environment but also the most important driving forces. These models are based on flowchart and algorithm systems, which represent changes using mathematical functions in a graphic or tabular form. In the case study of Lake Engure, connections between factors that influence ecosystems in the study area were identified. Specialised software, PowerSim Studio Academic 9.0, was used for modelling. The model consists of qualitative and multifactor data of Lake Engure ecosystems, such as water chemical, physical and hydrological parameters, biological, ornithological and other data collected in the study area. Development of this modelling method will make it possible to evaluate the impact of various processes on biological diversity changes in the study area and to identify the most important problems. Furthermore, this method could improve environmental management practice in the surrounding municipalities, and it will also be possible to make similar models of ecosystem quality in other regions.
Ritvars Freimanis, Rasa Vaiskunaite, Tereza Bezrucko and Andra Blumberga
In-situ measurements of a case study building located in Riga old town near the river Daugava has been carried out in this work. Performed measurements are moisture level of historic masonry, and interstitial monitoring of temperature and relative humidity between the layers of internal insulation and external wall. Obtained results are compared with outdoor weather data. Results show that during the cold months of the year no rising damp problem. No interstitial condensation under the internal insulation, and no risk of mold growth occur. However, the façade of the building tends to be highly influenced by the outdoor weather, and the moisture of the masonry increases during the rain load events.
Edite Biseniece, Ritvars Freimanis, Reinis Purvins, Armands Gravelsins, Aivars Pumpurs and Andra Blumberga
Being an important contributor to the final energy consumption, historic buildings built before 1945 have high specific heating energy consumption compared to current energy standards and norms. However, they often cannot be insulated from the outside due to their heritage and culture value. Internal insulation is an alternative. However internal insulation faces challenges related to hygrothermal behaviour leading to mold growth, freezing, deterioration and other risks. The goal of this research is to link hygrothermal simulation results with experimental results for internally insulated historic brick masonry to assess correlation between simulated and measured data as well as the most influential parameters. The study is carried out by both a mathematical simulation tool and laboratory tests of historic masonry with internal insulation with four insulation materials (mineral wool, EPS, wood fiber and granulated aerogel) in a cold climate (average 4000 heating degree days). We found disparity between measured and simulated hygrothermal performance of studied constructions due to differences in material parameters and initial conditions of materials. The latter plays a more important role than material parameters. Under a steady state of conditions, the condensate tolerating system varies between 72.7 % and 80.5 % relative humidity, but in condensate limiting systems relative humidity variates between 73.3 % and 82.3 %. The temperature between the masonry wall and all insulation materials has stabilized on average at +10 °C. Mold corresponding to Mold index 3 was discovered on wood fiber mat.