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  • Author: Andi Abeshi x
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Abstract

MAGI is concerned with research and diagnosis of rare genetic diseases. It has been operating since 2006 in Italy and abroad. Today it has three centers in Italy, including a medical genetics laboratory specialized in next generation sequencing in Bolzano, a medical genetics laboratory specialized in MLPA in Rovereto (Trento) and a genetic diseases information center at San Felice del Benaco (Brescia). MAGI has also invested outside Italy, setting up non-profit genetics laboratories in countries such as Albania, Russia and in the near future, Kazakhstan.

Abstract

We reviewed the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for non syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (NSRP). NSRP is determined by variations in the ABCA4, AGBL5, ARL2BP, ARL6, BBS2, BEST1, C2orf71, C8orf37, CA4, CDHR1, CERKL, CLRN1, CNGA1, CNGB1, CRB1, CRX, DHDDS, EYS, FAM161A, FSCN2, GUCA1B, HGSNAT, IDH3B, IFT140, IFT172, IMPDH1, IMPG2, KIZ, KLHL7, LRAT, MAK, MERTK, NEK2, NR2E3, NRL, OFD1, PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6G, POMGNT1, PRCD, PROM1, PRPF3, PRPF31, PRPF4, PRPF6, PRPF8, PRPH2, RBP3, RDH12, RGR, RHO, RLBP1, ROM1, RP1, RP2, RP9, RPE65, RPGR, SAG, SEMA4A, SLC7A14, SNRNP200, SPATA7, TOPORS, TTC8, TULP1, USH2A, ZNF408 and ZNF513 genes. Its overall prevalence is 1 per 4000. It is mostly inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, fewer genes have autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive transmission. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus autofluorescence, electroretinography, color vision testing and optical coherence tomography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Norrie disease. The disease is caused by variations in the NDP gene. Its prevalence is currently unknown. Inheritance is X-linked recessive. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, color vision testing, optical coherence tomography, ophthalmological examination and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

We reviewed the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Refsum disease. The disease has autosomal recessive inheritance, unknown prevalence, and is caused by variations in PEX7 and PHYH genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography and phytanic acid assay. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for ocular albinism and oculocutaneous albinism. Ocular albinism has X-linked recessive inheritance, with a prevalence that varies from 1/40000 to 1/1000000, and is caused by mutations in the GPR143 and CACNA1F genes. Oculocutaneous albinism has autosomal recessive inheritance, with an overall prevalence of 1/17000, and is caused by mutations in the TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC45A2, SLC24A5 and C10orf11 genes. Clinical diagnosis involves ophthalmological examination, testing of visually evoked potentials (VEP) and electrophysiological testing (ERG). The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, differential diagnosis, for couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for optic atrophy (OA). OA is mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, rarely in an autosomal recessive manner, with an overall prevalence of 3/100,000 live births. It is caused by mutations in the OPA1, OPA3 and TMEM126A genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, OCT, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for retinitis punctata albescens/fundus albipunctatus (RPA/FA). RPA and FA are reported to have autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance and are associated with variations in the PRPH2, RHO, RLBP1 and RDH5 genes. There is insufficient data to establish their prevalence. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, optical coherence tomography, visual field testing and undetectable or severely reduced electroretinogram amplitudes. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Senior- Loken syndrome (SLSN). SLSN is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, has a prevalence of one in a million, and is caused by variations in CEP164, CEP290, INVS, IQCB1, NPHP1, NPHP3, NPHP4, SDCCAG8, TRAF3IP1 and WDR19 genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on kidney (urine analysis, abdominal ultrasound, kidney function) and eye assessment (visual acuity test, fundus examination, refraction defects, color testing and electroretinography). The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Inherited eye diseases are a group of conditions with genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Advances in ocular genetic research have provided insights into the genetic basis of many eye diseases. Genetic and technological progress is improving the management and care of patients with inherited eye diseases. Diagnostic laboratories continue to develop strategies with high specificity and sensitivity that reduce the costs and time required for genetic testing. The introduction of next generation sequencing technologies has significantly advanced the identification of new gene candidates and has expanded the scope of genetic testing. Gene therapy offers an important opportunity to target causative genetic mutations. There are clinical trials of treatments involving vector-based eye gene therapies, and a significant number of loci and genes now have a role in the diagnosis and treatment of human eye diseases. Applied genetic technology heralds the development of individualized treatments, ushering ophthalmology into the field of personalized medicine. Many therapeutic strategies have demonstrated efficacy in preclinical studies and have entered the clinical trial phase. In this paper we review the topic of genetic testing in inherited eye diseases. We provide some background information about genetic counseling and genetic testing in ophthalmology and discuss how genetic testing can be helpful to patients and families with inherited eye diseases.

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for Sorsby’s fundus dystrophy (SFD). SFD is caused by variations in the TIMP3 gene. Prevalence is, currently unknown. SFD has autosomal dominant inheritance. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, color vision testing, optical coherence tomography, ophthalmological examination and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.