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Open access

Mauro Gonçalves and Anderson Souza Castelo Oliveira

Abstract

Purpose. To verify the effects of resistance training at the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) based on one-repetition maximum strength (1RM), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (PE) and endurance time (EndT). Methods. Nineteen subjects (training group [TG]: n = 10; control group [CG]: n = 9), performed 1-min bicep curl exercises sets at 25%, 30%, 35% and 40% 1RM. Electromyography (biceps brachii and brachiorradialis), HR and PE were registered. Biceps brachii EMGFT was used to create a load index for an eight-week resistance training programme (three sets until exhaustion/session, two sessions/week) for the TG. The CG only attended one session in the first week and another session in the last week of the eight-week training period for EndT measurement. EndT was determined from the number of repetitions of each of the three sets performed in the first and last training sessions. After training, 1RM, EMGFT, EndT, HR and PE at the different bicep curl load intensities were again measured for both groups. Results. Increases in 1RM (5.9%, p < 0.05) and EndT (> 60%, p < 0.001) after training were found. In addition, PE was reduced at all load intensities (p < 0.05), while no changes were found for HR and EMGFT after training. Conclusions. Strength-endurance training based on the EMGFT improved muscular endurance and also, to a lesser extent, muscular strength. Moreover, the reduced levels of physical exertion after training at the same intensity suggest that endurance training exercises may improve comfort while performing strength exercises.

Open access

Anderson Oliveira, Rogério Corvino, Mauro Gonçalves, Fabrizio Caputo and Benedito Denadai

Maximal Isokinetic Peak Torque and EMG Activity Determined by Shorter Ranges of Motion

Purpose. Isokinetic tests are often applied to assess muscular strength and EMG activity, however the specific ranges of motion used in testing (fully flexed or extended positions) might be constrictive and/or be painful for patients with injuries or under-going rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different ranges of motion (RoM) when determining maximal EMG during isokinetic knee flexion and extension with different types of contractions and velocities. Methods. Eighteen males had EMG activity recorded on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles during five maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric contractions for the knee flexors and extensors at 60° · s-1 and 180° · s-1. The root mean square of EMG was calculated at three different ranges of motion: (1) a full range of motion (90°-20° [0° = full knee extension]); (2) a range of motion of 20° (between 60°-80° and 40°-60° for knee extension and flexion, respectively) and (3) at a 10° interval around the angle where peak torque is produced. EMG measurements were statistically analyzed (ANOVA) to test for the range of motion, contraction velocity and contraction speed effects. Coefficients of variation and Pearson's correlation coefficients were also calculated among the ranges of motion. Results. Predominantly similar (p > 0.05) and well-correlated EMG results (r > 0.7, p ≤ 0.001) were found among the ranges of motion. However, a lower coefficient of variation was found for the full range of motion, while the 10° interval around peak torque at 180° · s-1 had the highest coefficient, regardless of the type of contraction. Conclusions. Shorter ranges of motion at around the peak torque angle provides a reliable indicator when recording EMG activity during maximal isokinetic parameters. It may provide a safer alternative when testing patients with injuries or undergoing rehabilitation.

Open access

Mojtaba Eskandari, Bruno Kessler, Maqsood Ahmad, Anderson Santana de Oliveira and Bruno Crispo

Abstract

The prevalence of mobile devices and their capability to access high speed internet has transformed them into a portable pocket cloud interface. Being home to a wide range of users’ personal data, mobile devices often use cloud servers for storage and processing. The sensitivity of a user’s personal data demands adequate level of protection at the back-end servers. In this regard, the European Union Data Protection regulations (e.g., article 25.1) impose restriction on the locations of European users’ personal data transfer. The matter of concern, however, is the enforcement of such regulations. The first step in this regard is to analyze mobile apps and identify the location of servers to which personal data is transferred. To this end, we design and implement an app analysis tool, PDTLoc (Personal Data Transfer Location Analyzer), to detect violation of the mentioned regulations. We analyze 1, 498 most popular apps in the EEA using PDTLoc to investigate the data recipient server locations. We found that 16.5% (242) of these apps transfer users’ personal data to servers located at places outside Europe without being under the control of a data protection framework. Moreover, we inspect the privacy policies of the apps revealing that 51% of these apps do not provide any privacy policy while almost all of them contact the servers hosted outside Europe.