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Anda Vilmane, Inga Ziemele, Santa Rasa, Anna Terentjeva, Modra Murovska, Dace Gardovska, Yung-Cheng Lin and Zaiga Nora-Krūkle

Abstract

Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of children in the world. In addition to respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus types A and B, parainfluenza types 1, 2 and 3, and adenoviruses, several new respiratory viruses associated with LRTI were discovered in the 21st century. These are metapneumovirus, coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1, parainfluenza virus type four and human bocavirus one (HBoV1). HBoV1 was discovered in 2005 and is considered as the fourth most prevalent respiratory virus worldwide. However, the high frequency of co-infections detected together with HBoV1 raises doubt about whether HBoV1 is a true pathogen or just a bystander. This is the first study aimed to determine the presence of HBoV1 and 18 other respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) of children with LRTI in Latvia. Using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction method, the HBoV1 genomic sequence was detected in 60.0% of NPA samples, showing that HBoV1 prevalence is high among children with LRTI in Latvia. HBoV1 mono-infection was revealed in 6.67%. The most common co-infections associated with HBoV1 were rhinovirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus A and B, metapneumovirus, and enterovirus.

Open access

Zaiga Nora-Krūkle, Santa Rasa, Anda Vilmane, Sabīne Grāvelsiņa, Mārtiņš Kālis, Inga Ziemele, Milda Naciute, Sigita Petraitiene, Diana Mieliauskaite, Migle Klimantaviciene, Irute Girkontaite, Hsin-Fu Liu, Jih-Hui Lin, Yung-Cheng Lin, Hsiu-Chuan Chan, Dace Gardovska and Modra Murovska

Abstract

Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is a parvovirus recently found to be a possible aetiologic agent of acute respiratory disease in children. We conducted the first clinical and molecular study on this virus in Latvia (LV) and Lithuania (LT). The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of HBoV1 in respiratory tract samples taken from hospitalised children with acute respiratory tract infections in LV and LT. In total 186 children with age one to 50 months, and who fulfilled criteria of acute respiratory tract infection, including lower respiratory tract infections, with or without fever, were included in this study. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained from each patient on admission. DNA was isolated and polimerase chain reaction (PCR) performed targeting the HBoV1 NS1sequence. HBoV1 positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. HBoV1 sequence was detected in 42 (32%) of 130 LV and in 8 (14%) of 56 LT samples. In LV the majority of patients with HBoV1 infection were observed in February while in LT in October. The phylogenetic tree for HBoV1 indicated that isolates of HBoV1 cluster closely and include almost all of the isolates in this study. HBoV1 is common in Latvia and Lithuania and might be a significant pathogen that contributes to acute respiratory tract infections in children.