The purpose of this paper is to analyze how a nation branding campaign can influence the image of a country and to highlight its positive or negative impact on industries such as tourism and on people’s perception. In order to accomplish this objective, Romania was taken as a case study. Five of the most important nation branding campaigns in Romania, after 1989, were examined in comparison, analyzing the same indicators. In the end, the paper shows that if nation branding campaigns do not follow a long-term strategy with all actors involved in the process, its impact in country image may be rather negative.
In recent years, more precisely from 1989 on, which was considered by a lot of experts the beginning of the second stage of globalization, nation branding campaigns have started to be launched in more and more countries in order to help developing nations image and reputation and to provide a competitive edge on economic, social and even political areas. Simon Anholt and Wally Olins are the two authors who studied the most nation branding phenomenon and came up with theories which were applied often by professionals when elaborating nation branding campaigns for different states. Nadia Kaneva, Keith Dinnie, Melissa Aronczyk, Luminita Nicolescu and Alina Dolea have also focused their researches on this theme and manage to contribute with new and interesting ideas to the field. This paper provides insight into the most important nation branding campaigns made by Romania starting from 1989 until present. Through a comparative analysis of those campaigns the paper tries to identify which was their impact on Romania’s image or reputation. How was Romania perceived (from the image perspective) before 1989 at international level? Did the image change after 1989? And what was the impact of the most important branding nation campaigns implemented after 1989 in the image of Romania and implicit in economy? These are the main questions this paper tries to answer. At the same time, the study also explores briefly the concept of globalization, nation branding, national image and national reputation. The conclusions of the paper will provide in the end a general background of all studied nation branding campaigns which will include the similarities and differences between them, but also both strong and weak points. Its aim is to contribute, among other existing papers, as a starting point for researchers or professionals who want to elaborate nation branding strategies for Romania or other countries.
Analyzing this important relationship between corporate image on one side, and country image on the other side is an interesting and actual topic in the context of the increasing level of globalization. Although the subject was approached by place branding scholars and practitioners, there is still a high need for theoretical and empirical research. This documentary article focuses more on the concept of transfer of image, from corporation to country and from country to corporation, but seen from a new perspective, as a Blue Ocean Strategy. The paper will also show the importance of this relation that exists between corporate and country from the image perspective, by given concrete examples withdrawn from relevant literature. At the same time, based on a documentary study, key aspects will be analyzed in order to show the positive aspects generated by the relationship between corporation image and country image. In conclusions, it will be presented how this connection between corporate and country can be one of the best answers to globalization and how the positive transfer of image can be implemented as a Blue Ocean Strategy. The aim of this study is to convince scholars and practitioners to research more on this new topic, because a proactive approach in this field can help increasing tourism and encourage investment and exports.
Hodgkin lymphoma, formerly known as Hodgkin disease, has gone from an incurable disease to one with a cure rate of almost 75%. The disease is defined in terms of its microscopic appearance (histology) and the expression of cell surface markers (immunophenotype), but its biologic behavior and clinical characteristics are also important.
Treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma is tailored to disease type, disease stage, and an assessment of the risk of resistant disease. General treatment modalities include radiation therapy, induction chemotherapy, salvage chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpesvirus that colonizes the B-cell system of its human host, allowing it to persist asymptomatically in the majority of the world’s adult population. In most people primary infection goes unnoticed, whereas in a minority of individuals, primary infection results in infectious mononucleosis (IM), a benign condition that almost always resolves after several weeks or months. However, EBV is also causally linked with a number of malignancies, including B-cell lymphomas, such as classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL).
A proportion of patients with cHL harbor EBV within their tumor cells. Emerging evidence suggests that while EBV is able to subvert cellular processes to promote the growth and survival of HRS cells or their progenitors, mutations in key cell signalization pathways are probably required to do this when EBV is absent. The challenge is to unravel exactly how EBV and its latent genes contribute to the pathogenesis of cHL particularly with respect to how the virus co-operates with cellular genetic and epigenetic changes to drive transformation. It is hoped that the development of better in vitro and in vivo models of disease will reveal more fundamental aspects of EBV’s role in Hodgkin lymphoma pathogenesis and pave the way for targeted therapies for patients with EBV-positive cHL.