The main objective was to identify pregnancy risk factors arising from the behaviour and lifestyle of Mureş county women during pregnancy. The postpartum women monitored in this study were from Mureş county and were interviewed by applying a questionnaire during the period they were in the hospital for postnatal care immediately after birth. The questions aimed at identifying prenatal risk factors and the unhealthy behaviour of women before and during pregnancy, referring to the socio-economic and cultural status (low family income or unemployment, less than high school studies, rural background and marital status), obesity during pregnancy, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, no physical activity. We identified, among the three major ethnicities in Mureş county (Romanian, Hungarian, Roma), the behaviour and lifestyle components with risk in pregnancy and after comparing profiles of these groups we identified the Roma ethnicity as being at the highest perinatal risk.
The habit of smoking is one of the most dangerous long-term behaviors affecting the health of a population, especially for young women, who will become the mothers to give birth to the future generations. In order to identify the prevalence of smoking among young women in Târgu Mureş, as well as other lifestyle-related risk factors, in this cross-sectional study we used a questionnaire to assess lifestyle among 964 women aged 15 to 49 years. The results showed that almost half of the interviewed women declared being smokers. The highest prevalence was found to be associated with the 21 to 30 year age group, no high-school education, non-Romanian ethnics, showing no interest for a healthy lifestyle, low resistance to stress and lack of proper rest and relaxation. This increased prevalence of smoking among women of childbearing age was identified alongside a low willingness for smoking cessation.
α, β, θ defensins represent a family of small antimicrobial peptides expressed predominantly by a series of cells, including neutrophils, monocytes-macrophages and epithelial cells that are involved in defense mechanisms against viral infections. β-defensins are the most widespread in this family being encountered in oral, digestive, urogenital mucosa and cutaneous lesions. β-defensins directly inactivate certain viruses, including the human papillomavirus(HPV) suppressing viral replication by altering target cells. Considering these aspects, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of β-defensin-1 and 2 in HPV-induced epithelial lesions. For this study, tumoral and normal mucosal tissue fragments were collected from 10 patients aged between 31-60years, with previously confirmed HPV infection, diagnosed clinically and histopathologically with cervical carcinoma. Patients did not receive any chemotherapy or radiotherapy before the biopsy procedure. The tissue fragments were processed by the standard immunohistochemistry technique using anti-β-defensin-1 and 2 antibodies(Bioss Antibodies). The samples examination revealed weak positive(+) membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear IR for hβD-1 in basal layer of normal cervical mucosa and moderate positive(++) membrane and cytoplasmic IR in squamous epithelium. For dysplastic HPV-associated tissues we highlighted a nuclear moderate positive(++) IR.For hβD-2, IR in basal layer of the normal mucosa was lower(+) compared with dysplastic cells IR and showed a strong expression(+++) at membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear level in koilocytes of patients with HPV-associated dysplasia. It was also observed a moderate positive (++) IR in basal layer of dysplastic cells of patients without HPV. The obtained results are in agreement with some literature data, which highlighted the fact that hβD-1 and hβD-2 are very important components of the molecular pattern in HPV-induced lesions.
Introduction. The cardiac allograft rejections from the post-transplant period are attributable to the acute cellular rejection monitored by multiple endomyocardial biopsies. Compared to this, humoral rejection remains a matter of debate, with multiple therapeutic strategies, poor prognosis, and persisting uncertainty about diagnostic criteria. Acute allograft rejection is associated with significant modifications of the extracellular matrix compartment mainly regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of MMP-2 and -9 and CD31, CD68 (endothelial and histiocytic markers) and the correlations between them using immunohistochemistry, in patients with cardiac allografts.
Materials and methods. Tissue fragments were obtained by endomyocardial biopsy from 5 patients with allograft heart transplant, 2 in the medium post-transplant phase and 2 in late phase. After identifying and characterizing the morphological context the probes were processed by standard immunohistochemical technique using anti-MMP-2 and anti-MMP-9 antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.) and anti-CD31, anti-CD68 antibodies (Sigma). The samples were examined using the Olympus BX40 microscope with an Olympus E330 camera attached.
Results and discussions. Sample examination revealed in all 4 cases the lack of IR (-) for CD31 and weak IR (+) for CD68 compared to MMPs, where we found moderate IR (++) for MMP-9 and weak IR (+) for MMP-2. These aspects complets the histological lesional aspects of these cases, indicating the lack of acute rejection. In conclusion, CD31 and CD68 IR correlated with MMPs IR (especially MMP-9) appear to represent predictive markers for cardiac allograft rejection and require further studies.