Orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) is a major concern regarding periodontal status after nonsurgical orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess this sequel by a systematic review of published data. For assessment, we performed an electronic search of one database for comprehensive data, using keywords in different combinations: “root resorption”, “periodontics” and “nonsurgical orthodontic treatment”. We supplemented the results searching by hand in published journals and we cross-referenced with the accessed articles. Patients included in the results presented a good general health status, with no previous history of OIEARR and no other associated pathologies. Finally, twenty-three studies were selected and included in this review. A high prevalence (69–98%) and moderate severity of OIEARR (<5 mm and <1/3 from original root length) were reported. No difference in root resorption was found regarding the sex of the patients. A moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption was found. Also, a mild correlation regarding antero-posterior apical displacement and root resorption was found.
Introduction: According to last years' research, periodontopathogens may have a negative impact on treatment options in patients with periodontal lesions. However, not all infected sites suffer periodontal destructions, which can be explained on the assumption that only a limited number of pathogens present in a sufficient amount, are capable of affecting the periodontal tissue. Thermal cycling polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a new technique used for the identification and quantification of periodontopathogenic bacteria. The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of periodontal pathogens, and to evaluate the amount of microbacterial pathogens in the periodontal pockets of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for a more predictable result.
Material and methods: A total amount of 32 subgingival samples were collected from periodontal pockets ≥6 mm in 8 patients. Clinical examinations, periapical radiographs and periodontal screenings were performed. Only patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were included in the study. PCR and DNA hybridization-based identification were performed by paper-point sampling using a micro-IDent plus, Hain Lifescience Germany kit.
Results and Discussions: Results showed that bacterial load may be connected to disease progression. The prevalence of the periodontopathogenic bacteria Actinobacillus a. was established in 42.8% of cases, P. Gingivalis in 71.42%, P. Intermedia 57.14%, Bacteroides F. was found in 85.71% of cases, Treponema D. in 100% of cases. Extremely high bacterial loads were recorded for Actinobacillus a., Bacteroides F. and Prevotella I.