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Open access

Ivan Pavlović, Snežana Ivanović, Aleksandar Dimitrić, Mensur Vegara, Ana Vasić, Slavica Živković and Bojana Mijatović


During our examination performed in the period from 2010 to 2012, we collected ticks from 52 flocks of sheep and 38 goat flocks. Ticks infestation occured in 15.97% (214/1340) of sheep and 16.93% (107/632) of goats. The result showed the presence of Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. bursa, Dermacentor marginatus, D. pictus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Ha. inermis. Additional to determination of tick species during the research, the sex ratio and the monthly influence of microclimate conditions (temperature, relative humidity and precipitation quantity) on the dynamics of populations of ticks were followed. Obtained results indicate the importance of the impact of climatic factors on the population dynamics of some species of ticks as well as the dynamics and abundance of different sexes within established species of ticks.

Open access

Nataša Bogićević, Milica Elezović Radovanović, Ana Vasić, Marija Manić, Jovan Marić, Dragica Vojinović, Dragan Rogožarski, Ana Gligić and Miroslav Valčić


Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50). Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217). There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

Open access

Noora Al-Hammadi, Palmira Caparrotti, Carole Naim, Jillian Hayes, Katherine Rebecca Benson, Ana Vasic, Hissa Al-Abdulla, Rabih Hammoud, Saju Divakar and Primoz Petric



During radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer, parts of the heart are irradiated, which may lead to late toxicity. We report on the experience of single institution with cardiac-sparing radiotherapy using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold (V-DIBH) and compare its dosimetric outcome with free breathing (FB) technique.

Patients and methods

Left-sided breast cancer patients, treated at our department with postoperative radiotherapy of breast/chest wall +/– regional lymph nodes between May 2015 and January 2017, were considered for inclusion. FB-computed tomography (CT) was obtained and dose-planning performed. Cases with cardiac V25Gy ≥ 5% or risk factors for heart disease were coached for V-DIBH. Compliant patients were included. They underwent additional CT in V-DIBH for planning, followed by V-DIBH radiotherapy. Dose volume histogram parameters for heart, lung and optimized planning target volume (OPTV) were compared between FB and BH. Treatment setup shifts and systematic and random errors for V-DIBH technique were compared with FB historic control.


Sixty-three patients were considered for V-DIBH. Nine (14.3%) were non-compliant at coaching, leaving 54 cases for analysis. When compared with FB, V-DIBH resulted in a significant reduction of mean cardiac dose from 6.1 +/– 2.5 to 3.2 +/– 1.4 Gy (p < 0.001), maximum cardiac dose from 51.1 +/– 1.4 to 48.5 +/– 6.8 Gy (p = 0.005) and cardiac V25Gy from 8.5 +/– 4.2 to 3.2 +/– 2.5% (p < 0.001). Heart volumes receiving low (10–20 Gy) and high (30–50 Gy) doses were also significantly reduced. Mean dose to the left anterior coronary artery was 23.0 (+/– 6.7) Gy and 14.8 (+/– 7.6) Gy on FB and V-DIBH, respectively (p < 0.001). Differences between FB- and V-DIBH-derived mean lung dose (11.3 +/– 3.2 vs. 10.6 +/– 2.6 Gy), lung V20Gy (20.5 +/– 7 vs. 19.5 +/– 5.1 Gy) and V95% for the OPTV (95.6 +/– 4.1 vs. 95.2 +/– 6.3%) were non-significant. V-DIBH-derived mean shifts for initial patient setup were ≤ 2.7 mm. Random and systematic errors were ≤ 2.1 mm. These results did not differ significantly from historic FB controls.


When compared with FB, V-DIBH demonstrated high setup accuracy and enabled significant reduction of cardiac doses without compromising the target volume coverage. Differences in lung doses were non-significant.