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Ana Paula Soares, Helena Mendes Oliveira, Montserrat Comesaña and Ana Santos Costa


There is extensive evidence showing that bilinguals activate lexical representations in a non-selective way both when words are presented in isolation and in sentence contexts. Recent research has shown the existence of cross-language activation at the syntactic level as well. However, the extent to which the lexical and syntactic levels of representation interact during second language (L2) sentence processing, and how these interactions are modulated by L2 proficiency remain unclear. In this paper, we explore how native speakers of European-Portuguese (L1) who are learning English as an L2 at different levels of proficiency (intermediate vs. advanced) resolve relative clause (RC) syntactic ambiguities in their L2. European Portuguese and English native speakers were used as controls. Participants were asked to perform a sentence completion task, with cognates and noncognates critically embedded in the complex noun phrase (NP) preceding the RC, and which contained its antecedent. Results revealed that L2 learners, like English controls, preferred to attach the RC to the last host of the complex NP, regardless of L2 proficiency. Importantly, the cognate status of the complex NP modulated the results, although, contrary to our expectation, the presence of cognates induced less L1 syntax interference compared to noncognates.

Open access

Ana Oliveira, Joana S.P. Devesa, Peter B. Hill, Vanessa Silva and Patrícia Poeta



Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis often cause skin diseases in dogs.

Material and Methods

An online survey was e-mailed to veterinary practices nationwide covering demographics, diagnosis methods, and oral and topical treatment options. Of the 740 surveys sent, 100 complete replies were obtained.


The majority of clinicians were unaware of the existence of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases guidelines or did not follow them (53%). Oral antibiotics were used universally for superficial bacterial folliculitis treatment, particularly amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cephalexin (94%), enrofloxacin (67%), or marbofloxacin (60%). For fold dermatitis (FD) and otitis externa (OE), oral antibiotics were also given as treatment in 88% and 82% of cases, respectively. Oral antifungals were often prescribed for generalised Malassezia dermatitis (85%), FD (70%), and OE (59%). S. pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis were frequently treated topically, particularly with antibacterials or antifungals only, or a combination of antibacterials, antifungals, and glucocorticoids. Alternative options such as honey-based products were not frequently used.


Our survey suggests that oral antibiotics are overused by Portuguese clinicians despite the spread of antibiotic resistant S. pseudintermedius. Oral antibiotics and antifungals are commonly prescribed for skin conditions manageable with topical treatments.

Open access

Susana Viegas, de Ana Cebola Oliveira, Elisabete Carolino and Mário Pádua


Healthcare workers who prepare or administer cytotoxic agents run the risk of exposure, and the risks for health are real even at doses lower than those applied in cancer patients, because, in theory, no dose is safe. The most common and problematic route of exposure is through the skin, especially as work surfaces can remain contaminated even after cleaning. This pilot study aimed to demonstrate the importance of having an effective surface decontamination protocol by determining surface contamination with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel as the most common cytotoxic drugs in an oncology day service. Samples were collected before and after drug handling and analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Of the 29 samples collected before drug handling 23 were contaminated, five of which with more than one drug. Of the 30 samples collected after drug handling 25 were contaminated, eight of which with more than one drug. The two time points did not significantly differ, which evidences a widespread contamination and ineffective cleaning. This calls for revising the cleaning protocol and handling procedure to place contamination under control as much as possible.

Open access

Ana Carolina Gago Raymundo, Carlos Soares Pernambuco, Rosana Dias de Oliveira Brum, Juliana Brandão Pinto de Castro, Flávio Boechat de Oliveira, Dirceu Ribeiro Nogueira da Gama, Rodolfo de Alkmim Moreira Nunes and Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale


Study aim: To evaluate the levels of strength, agility and the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) between the offensive and de­fensive teams of football players. Material and methods: In the present cross-sectional study, 20 male Brazilian football players were divided into an offensive group (OG, n = 10, age: 25.50 ± 6.15 years) and a defensive group (DG, n = 10, age: 22.50 ± 5.48 years). We used the dy­namometer for back and legs, the shuttle run test, and the Cooper test to evaluate strength, agility and VO2max, respectively. Results: The independent Student t-test showed that the OG was significantly more agile than the DG (p < 0.05). The other variables did not show any statistically significant differences. In the OG there was a strong correlation between agility and VO2max (r = - 0.834, p = 0.003, r2 = 0.70). However, in the DG there was a moderate correlation between the same variables (r = - 0.677, p = 0.031, r2 = 0.46). This shows that the greater the agility is, the higher is the VO2max. There was no correlation between the variables muscle strength and body fat percentage. Conclusions: The study showed that the OG has a better physical condition than the DG.

Open access

Lídia Aguiar Bezerra, Helton Fabrício de Melo, Ana Paula Garay, Victor Machado Reis, Felipe José Aidar, Ana Rita Bodas, Nuno Domingos Garrido and Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira


Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women.