Alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and uric acid cut-off levels used in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis are advised to be lowered. Due to contradictory results on the utility of both these biomarkers for NAFLD screening, we aimed to determine their cut-off levels that can be applied to Montenegrin population with the fatty liver disease.
A total of 771 volunteers were enrolled. A fatty liver index (FLI) score ≥60 was used as proxy of NAFLD. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the area under the curve (AUC) was used to determine the cut-off values of ALT and uric acid associated with FLI ≥60.
ALT was independent predictor of FLI in both men and women, whereas serum uric acid was its independent predictor only in women. Lower cut-off levels of ALT are associated with the increased prevalence of NAFLD [i.e., ALT was 19 IU/L (AUC=0.746, sensitivity 63%, specificity 72%, P<0.001) in women and 22 IU/L (AUC=0.804, sensitivity 61%, specificity 95%, P<0.001) in men]. The cut-off value for uric acid was 274 μmol/L (AUC=0.821, sensitivity 68%, specificity 82%, P<0.001) in women.
Lower cut-off levels of ALT in both genders, and serum uric acid in females, can be reliable predictors of the FLI.
Aleksandra Klisic, Gordana Kocic, Nebojsa Kavaric, Radmila Pavlovic, Ivan Soldatovic and Ana Ninic
Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidative stress biomarker which is regarded as one of the key determinants of energy metabolism and vascular tone. Considering the controversial reports on the association between nitric oxide products (NOx) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), the aim of the current study was to examine that potential relationship. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate a broad spectrum of other oxidative stress biomarkers [i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), xanthine oxidoreductase (XOD), xanthine oxidase (XO) xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH)] in relation with MetS.
A total of 109 volunteers (46.8% of them with MetS) were included in this cross-sectional study. Biohemical and anthropometric parameters, as well as blood pressure, were obtained. The MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that XOD (OR=1.011; 95% CI 1.002–1.019; p=0.016), XO (OR=1.014; 95% CI 1.003–1.026; p=0.016), MDA (OR=1.113; 95% CI 1.038–1.192; p=0.003) and AOPP (OR=1.022; 95% CI 1.005–1.039; p=0.012) were the independent predictors of MetS, whereas no association between NOx and MetS was found. As XOD rose for 1 U/L, XO for 1 U/L, MDA for 1 μmol/L and AOPP for 1 T/L, probability for MetS rose for 1.1%, 1.4%, 11.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Adjusted R2 for the Model was 0.531, which means that 53.1% of variation in MetS could be explained with this Model.
Unlike XOD, MDA and AOPP, NOx is not associated with MetS.
Ana Ninić, Nataša Bogavac-Stanojević, Miron Sopić, Jelena Munjas, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Milica Miljković, Tamara Gojković, Dimitra Kalimanovska-Oštrić and Vesna Spasojević-Kalimanovska
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in wide world population. Dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress may contribute to disruption of endothelium structure and function, atherosclerosis and CAD. Our study was aimed to determine whether Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) gene expression could be modulated by oxidative stress in CAD patients.
This study included 77 CAD patients and 31 apparently healthy persons. Serum lipid levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total antioxidant status (TAS) and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) were measured. SOD isoenzymes gene expression was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Mn SOD messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were significantly lower in CAD patients than in controls (p=0.011), while Cu/Zn SOD mRNA levels did not change significantly between tested groups (p=0.091). We found significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (p<0.001) and TAS (p<0.001) levels and significantly higher hsCRP (p=0.002) and TBARS (p<0.001) in CAD patients than in controls. There were significant positive correlations between TAS and Mn SOD mRNA (ρ=0.243, p=0.020) and TAS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (r=0.359, p<0.001). TBARS negatively correlated only with Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (ρ=-0.215, p=0.040). TAS levels remained independent predictor for Mn SOD mRNA levels (OR=2.995, p=0.034).
Results of this study showed that Mn SOD gene expression were decreased in CAD patients compared to controls and can be modulated by non-enzymatic antioxidant status in blood.