Ana Muñoz, Aritz Saitua, Mireya Becero, Cristina Riber, Katy Satué, Antonia Sánchez de Medina, David Argüelles and Cristina Castejón-Riber
In recent years, exercise on a water treadmill has come to have great relevance in rehabilitation and training centres for sport horses. Its use exploits certain physical properties of water, related to the fundamental principles of hydrodynamics, such as buoyancy, viscosity, hydrostatic pressure, and water temperature. These properties together with deliberate specification of the depth of the water and the velocity of the treadmill provide a combination of parameters that can be varied according to the purpose of the rehabilitation or training programme, the disease to rehabilitate, or the healing phase. In the current article, kinematic adaptations to exercise on a water treadmill and the direct application of such exercise to the rehabilitation of superficial and deep digital flexor tendon and accessory ligament injuries and back and joint diseases are described.
Radost S. Assenova, Jean Yves Le Reste, Gergana H. Foreva, Daniela S. Mileva, Slawomir Czachowski, Agnieszka Sowinska, Patrice Nabbe, Stella Argyriadou, Djurdjica Lazic, Melida Hasaganic, Heidrun Lingner, Harris Lygidakis, Miguel-Angel Muñoz, Ana Claveria, Chista Doerr, Harm Van Marwijk, Paul Van Royen and Claire Lietard
INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity is a health issue with growing importance. During the last few decades the populations of most countries in the world have been ageing rapidly. Bulgaria is affected by the issue because of the high prevalence of ageing population in the country with multiple chronic conditions. The AIM of the present study was to validate the translated definition of multimorbidity from English into the Bulgarian language. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is part of an international project involving 8 national groups. We performed a forward and backward translation of the original English definition of multimorbidity using a Delphi consensus procedure. RESULTS: The physicians involved accepted the definition with a high percentage of agreement in the first round. The backward translation was accepted by the scientific committee using the Nominal group technique. DISCUSSION: Some of the GPs provided comments on the linguistic expressions which arose in order to improve understanding in Bulgarian. The remarks were not relevant to the content. The conclusion of the discussion, using a meta-ethnographic approach, was that the differences were acceptable and no further changes were required. CONCLUSIONS: A native version of the published English multimorbidity definition has been finalized. This definition is a prerequisite for better management of multimorbidity by clinicians, researchers and policy makers.