Katerina Zlatanovska, Ljuben Guguvcevski, Risto Popovski, Cena Dimova, Ana Minovska and Aneta Mijoska
Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the fracture load of composite veneers using three different preparation designs. Material and methods: Fifteen extracted, intact, human maxillary central incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three groups with different preparation design: 1) feather preparation, 2) bevel preparation, and 3) incisal overlap- palatal chamfer. Teeth were restored with composite veneers, and the specimens were loaded to failure. The localization of the fracture was recorded as incisal, gingival or combined. Results: Composite veneers with incisal overlap - palatal chamfer showed higher fracture resistance compared to feather preparation and bevel preparation. The mean (SD) fracture loads were: Group 1: 100.6±8.0 N, Group 2: 107.4±6.8 N, and Group 3: 122.0±8.8 N. The most common mode of failure was debonding for veneers with feather preparation and fracture when incisal edge is reduced. The most frequent localization of fracture was incisal. Conclusion: The type of preparation has a significant effect on fracture load for composite veneers. This study indicates that using an incisal overlap- palatal chamfer preparation design significantly increases the fracture resistance compared to feather and bevel preparation designs.
Mihajlo Petrovski, Olivera Terzieva-Petrovska, Ivona Kovecevska, Ana Minovska, Kiro Ivanovski and Kiro Papakoca
Creating of protocol for the education for oral health and improving oral hygiene among institutionalized elderly is of great significance in prevention of the consequences that can provide numerous oral diseases among the elderly. Activation of as much as possible range of professionals in the field of dentistry in creation of this protocol and the fundamentals for the education of dental staff, and other professionals who care for health also has great significance. In this way with minimal financial loss will be reached maximum benefit-improved quality of life for institutionalized elderly. Taking into consideration the previously mentioned facts about of oral health, the presence of numerous dental problems and increased health needs and poor health among institutionalized elderly the aim of this paper was made- to make a draft protocol for education of the staff responsable for care of the institutionalized elderly aged over 65 years. In this paper are presented fundamentals of a proposed protocol for improving of oral health and hygiene among institutionalized elderly. Presented are all disadvantages in of oral health care for the elderly, are given directions and goals in order for improving of oral health and hygiene among the elderly, guidelines and targets for prevention programs to educate the professionals who care for them.
Mirjana Popovska, Kristina Mitik, Ladislava Grchevska, Aneta Atanasovska-Stojanovska, Biljana Kapushevska, Ilijana Muratovska, Ana Minovska and Vera Radojkova-Nikolovska
Aim: To examine the role of IgA, CIC and component C3 as indicators of humoral immune response in the etiopathogenesis of oral erosive lichen planus (OELP).
Material and method: The study comprised 19 patients with OELP whose samples of blood, saliva and tissue were obtained after carefully taken medical history and clinical examination. Samples of oral mucosa were taken from the site of lesion, i.e. exclusively from buccal mucosa (1 cm in width and length), and from the deep epithelium as well as a segment from the lamina propria. Determination of immunoglobulins in serum and saliva, and determination of component C3, was done using the micro-elisa technique by Rook & Cameron, Engvall and Ulman. Determination of CIC in serum and mixed saliva was done with the PEG (polyethylene glycol) method. Determination of immunoglobulin A and component C3 in biopsy material was done with direct immunofluorescence.
Results: Levels of immunoglobulin A in serum in OELP during exacerbation were decreased (1.04 ± 0.49 gr/l) and during remission increased (5.92 ± 0.62) in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001). Levels of CIC during exacerbation and remission were increased (p < 0.001), and component C3 levels were increased in both examined phases in the examined group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Deposits of IgA were registered in one (5.88%) patient with OELP and component C3 was registered in 3 (17.64%) patients.
Conclusion: Changes in IgA values, as well as CIC and component C3, may correlate with changes in oral mucosa emphasizing the role of humoral immune response in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.