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Bondar Andrei Cristian and Popa Amorin Remus

Abstract

Alpha lipoic acid is an antioxidant substance used for the pathogenic treatment of diabetic neuropathy, oxidative stress being a central mechanism in diabetic microvascular complications. Our study included 24 diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic neuropathy and 20 healthy subjects. Diabetes patients were given alpha lipoic acid 600 mg intravenously for 10 days and then per os for 30 days.

Significant improvements were observed concerning oxidative stress evaluated by measuring serum malondyaldehide and ceruloplasmin. The clinical characteristic of neuropathy improved, both the level of pain decreased and the vibration perception threshold increased. Our study demonstrated a two times higher level of oxidative stress in patients with diabetes compared to healthy subjects, and that by influencing oxidative stress we could influence the clinical aspects of neuropathy. Further investigations need to be done to explore the pleiotropic effects of alpha lipoic acid on other mechanisms that are implicated in the pathogenies of diabetic neuropathy.

Open access

Amorin Remus Popa and Alina Bodea

Abstract

Background and aims: A high prevalence of obesity is found at global and national level, representing an important problem for the public health. The purpose of this work was to develop preventive medicine by performing an epidemiological study in order to identify people with obesity. We also aimed to analyze obesity prevalence and the influence of the family medical history of obesity in the analyzed population segment.

Material and methods: Between 2011 and April 2014 we have been working on a descriptive, observational study in a rural zone of Bihor County – the Curtuiuseni village.

Results: In a relatively young population (average age around 50 years) the obesity prevalence was high (21.41%). The risk of obesity in the population with a positive family history of obesity was 2.2 higher compared with the population without. Abdominal obesity was more frequent in females (59.24%) than males (34.27%).

Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of obesity (21.41%) in a rural population of Bihor County, but lower than the country average (31.40%). Pathological waist circumference, representing a risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases, was found in 48.32% of cases.

Open access

Alina Bodea and Amorin Remus Popa

Abstract

Background and aims: In the modern society, obesity represents an important health issue, both because the great number of obese patients in the developed and developing countries and the complications that occur in obese patients, accompanied by an increased risk for cardio-metabolic complications, cancer and death. Material and methods: Among the numerous data recorded in the literature, I made reference to about 30 articles supporting certain hypotheses or truths regarding the pathogenesis of obesity and its cardio-metabolic consequences.

Open access

Adriana Baidog and Amorin-Remus Popa

Abstract

Introduction: The Metabolic Syndrome is considered at present as one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity at world level. Even if the uric acid is not part of any definition of the Metabolic Syndrome, the actual studies have shown strong associations between uric acid concentration and the Metabolic Syndrome or its components, the role of Uric Acid within the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) being increasingly investigated.

Aims: We have analyzed recently published data that show the importance of hyperuricemia in MS, Cardiovascular Diseases, Chronic Kidney Disease.

Conclusions: Uric Acid (UA) is a central player in MS progression and in cardiorenal pathology, which is why a multidisciplinary approach and a correct treatment are required, in order to obtain multiple benefits and, possibly, in the future, new therapeutic guidelines in approaching MS.

Open access

Alina Bodea and Amorin Remus Popa

Abstract

Background and aims: Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and obesity are now globally widespread clinical conditions, addressing different ages, lately extending to young and children. The causes are multiple, involving an interaction between individual genetic risk factors and environmental factors. Many studies showed the importance of the hypothalamic neuropeptides and other neuropeptides in the regulation of the balance between food intake and energy consumption. We reviewed 25 recent research studies describing the physiological and physiopathological mechanisms of the orectic and anorectic peptides and their interaction to adjust the balance between food intake and energy expenditure.

Conclusions: The hypothalamus, through its nuclei (arcuate and paraventricular) controls the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. The proopiomelanocortin (POMC) / Cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) neurons represent the anorectic centre. The neurons that release neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) by stimulation form the orectic centre. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the main hypothalamic orectic neuropeptide. Its action, besides stimulating the orectic effect, is to modulate the release of other hypothalamic orectic and anorectic neuropeptides. In addition, the energy balance is regulated by adipokines released by the adipose cells, hormones and neurotransmitters, blood glucose level and other metabolites.

Open access

Bondar Andrei-Cristian and Popa Amorin-Remus

Abstract

It is known that the aged persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus present a high risk for developing neurocognitive disorders and in order to explain this phenomenon we have proposed some potential risk factors. They can be involved in the causality patterns or can act as useful markers of the cerebrovascular lesions (or both) and for which there are strong proofs, including the poor glycemic control, hypoglycemia, microvascular diseases, inflammation or depression. For the macrovascular affections, the association with the cognitive disorders seems to devolve on the examined vascular system. It is put into discussion that for the next researches it is important to analyze how exactly the interrelations between the risk factors can contribute to cognitive disorders.

Open access

Raluca-Iulia Juncar, Mihai Juncar and Amorin-Remus Popa

Abstract

Background and Aims. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent systemic diseases found in the human adult population. However, the impact of diabetes mellitus, particularly type 2, on oral health is a controversial subject that is far from being clarified. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the oral health of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in order to detect the main oral pathological changes occurring in these patients.

Material and method. For this study, 328 patients who presented for dental treatments in the period May 2015 – May 2016 were available. Of these, 33 patients with T2DM, who made up the diabetes group, and 79 patients who formed the control group were selected. Diabetes group was selected from patients that presented no other systemic disorders that could determine the appearance of oral lesions except for T2DM. The control group was selected in order to have general characteristics similar to the diabetes group.

Results. Patients in the diabetes group had a mean tooth loss value of 12.69±7.47 compared to patients in the non-diabetic group, who had a mean value of 6.29±4.62. Non-odontogenic oral pathology such as chronic candidiasis, salivary disorders and lichen planus was present in 51.52% of all patients with T2DM, while in the control group this was absent.

Conclusions. The presence of diabetes mellitus favors tooth loss and the development of non-diabetic oral lesions.

Open access

Ionuţ Vlad and Amorin Remus Popa

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus represents worldwide an extremely important public health problem considering its high prevalence, the serious complications triggered by the disease, the associated rate of mortality and, not the least, the extremely high economic and social costs. In 1995 approximately 135 million persons were affected by diabetes and an increase of 300 million cases was estimated by the year 2025. At the end of 2012 a number of 347 million persons with diabetes was estimated, with a prediction of 552 million cases in 2030, that is 9.9% from the world’s adult population. The question asked on an annual basis is: „Diabetes where do we go? Can we stop the dramatic evolution?”

Open access

Loredana Mӑdӑlina Popa, Bogdan Timar, Amorin Remus Popa and Mircea Ioachim Popescu

Abstract

Background and Aims: The aim of the study was to estimate the predictive value of some new biomarkers in the assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) population and to perform a correlation between the SCORE risk results and the risk profile estimated by the use of these biomarkers. Finally, we aimed to establish if the CVD risk assessment can be improved by adding the biomarkers into the SCORE risk equation. Material and Methods: In the study population the CVD risk assessment was performed using the SCORE High Risk Chart. The new individual biomarkers were: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate, albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), cystatin C, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and apolipoprotein B (apo-B). Results: The SCORE risk prediction model results were significantly altered by adding in the equation apo-B and HDLc values. An increase of one standard deviation of the apo-B values caused the increase of the SCORE results with 0.19 standard deviations while an increase of one standard deviation of the HDLc values decreased the SCORE results with 0.26 standard deviations. Conclusions: Advanced lipid testing, including the measurement of apo-B, provides a more comprehensive cardiac risk assessment and should be used in the development of specifically designed risk-scores for T2DM individuals.

Open access

Dana Sonia Oieru, Amorin Remus Popa and Ionuţ Vlad

Abstract

Background and aims: The theory regarding the psychological factors as etiologic agents that trigger the somatic diseases has gained more and more ground in the past few years, successfully repeating that the human being is a bio-psycho-social entity. In order to render the psychological interventions more efficient in the management of the psychosomatic diseases, this research aims to detect and modify, even treat throught psychological interventions those configurations of the early maladaptive schemes and coping styles that stick form together in the so-called acquired vulnerability which makes the person liable to an inappropriate reaction against stress, and also to track the effects of these changes on somatic indicators of diabetes mellitus. Material and methods: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired T-test were used for analysing subjects` responses at three psychological instruments, evolution of blood pressure, body mass index, drug units, hospitalisation days, medical leave days, depressive symptoms before and after 10-12 psychological interventions sessions. Results: Results draw the attention once again upon the multiple directions of intervention and especially of prevention in case of the psychosomatic disease, in particular diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: Psychological intervention in the early stages of diabetes is a major contributor to the management of this disease.