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  • Author: Amer Al Saif x
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Open access

Mohamed Faisal Chevidikunnan, Amer Al Saif, Harish Pai K and Lawrence Mathias



The Q angle is a relevant clinical diagnostic measurement to detect various disorders of the knee. The common method used to measure the Q angle in the routine clinical practice is by radiography. An alternative to radiographic measurement is goniometry, by which exposure to x-rays can be avoided.


To compare and correlate the goniometric measurement of Q angle with radiographic measurement of the Q angle in patients with acute knee pain.


We selected 45 patient participants with a mean age of 32.5 years who satisfied the inclusion criteria for this study. All the patients underwent goniometric measurement of the Q angle followed by x-ray imaging of the entire lower limb. Later the bony prominences were marked on the x-ray image and the Q angle formed was measured using a protractor. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the goniometric and radiographic measurements was determined.


We found a significant relationship between Q angles obtained using a goniometer and x-ray imaging in the supine position (r = 0.91, P = 0.001). The mean difference between the goniometric measurement of Q angle and the radiographic measurement was 0.1°, which is not significant.


Goniometry can be used to measure Q angle as accurately as radiography, and can be used as an inexpensive and radiation free alternative.

Open access

Amer Saeed Rashid, Saif Saood Abdelrazaq, Samer S. Hoz, Huber Padilla, Ramos-Villegas Yancarlos, Daniela López-Cepeda, Mohammed Al-Dhahir and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar


Introduction: Penetrating lesions by pencil in the temporal lobe in children and adolescents are uncommon. We present the case of a teenager with penetrating injury by strange object in the temporal lobe. Case: Twelve years old male patient, with history of trauma while he was playing with his friends, presents alteration of the consciousness state, weakness in right hemibody and dysphasia. Urgent surgery is practiced employing an incision in “C” form with improvement of the consciousness state during post-operative. Discussion: Penetrating lesions in the skull and brain are classified as missiles and non-missiles depending of their impact velocity. The wood is a porous organic material that provide a natural deposit of microbian agents, making it potentially lethal. Pre-operative radiological evaluation allows check the trajectory of the penetrating object and secondary lesions present guiding de neurosurgical approach. The prognostic depends on penetration site, timely handling and complications associated. Conclusion: Penetrating lesions by pencil are uncommon, an appropriate imaging evaluation is fundamental to determine the neurosurgical approach that allows prevent and/or decrease secondary damage.