Current and future challenges, the efficiency of food systems resources, induced by the impact of biodiversity loss and degradation, in general and agro-forestry biodiversity, in special, are crucial and contribute concretely to ensuring human and animal welfare and health, with direct implications for quality of life. Social responsibility is the attribute of every member of the civil society and every member of the knowledge society, to protect the food resources that are so necessary for the evolution of the present and future generations. Responsible social approaches need to be incorporated into day-to-day decisions from all decision levels because they have a dynamic character with real involvement in practice. We have an obligation to preserve the ecological balance, and so fairly fragile, but from the desire to accumulate benefits in the short term, we endanger the productivity and efficiency of the food system. For people belonging to poor and vulnerable groups, local biodiversity ensures the functioning of ecosystems and the provision of goods and services that are so necessary to unfold a healthy life, representing a social safety net with direct implications in the process of sustainable development.
On the international scene, Europe expresses its views and acts concerted at an economic and political level, from trade and trade agreements to citizens’ safety and security as priority areas.
Member States’ security cooperation has become routine. But the EU-27 is still the main promoter of European citizens’ food safety and security through sustained, transparent and sustainable deners, in order to combat climate change, limiting the use of bioresources conservation of genetic resource biodiversity.
One of the strongest enemies of biodiversity is “poverty” and protection against it necessarily implies improving the well-being of humanity and fighting against underdevelopment.
It is known that in all Western European countries, during the 20th century was initiated, developed, applied and consolidated the bio-scientific principle of agriculture zootehnization, so this trend continues in the first two decades of the 21st century. Based of the official data of EUROSTAT, this article presents the concrete situation of the dynamics of the two main livestock productions, respectively milk and meat, using annual data, namely those published in 2016 and 2017. The authors use new bio-scientific arguments to analyze and interpret the concept of agriculture zootehnization, with unprecedented and documented ighlighting of polyvalent and synergistic aspects, between the effective zootechnical practice of the performing agriculture (on the one hand) and the bioeconomic management of animal husbandry (on the other hand). Thus, the authors report the fact that at 21 611 thousand head dairy cows in the EU (excluding the United Kingdom), is collected a production of 138 511 thousand tonnes milk, with a average milk production of 6 409.29 kg / head, of which in the milk industry (Table 3. with those 14 selected countries), the year is obtained, in thousand tons, 30 087 dairy products (milk for consumption, milk powder, butter and cheese). In the same sense, the authors present and analyze the dynamics of meat production from the farm livestock and they find that the annual values for carcass weight in thousands tons are for bovine 6,885, for pigs 22,522 and for sheep 423, which highlights a real zootechnical, genetic and bio-productive potential. We underline that in two synthesis tables, the authors present the numerical situation of the relations between the European Union and Romania, so in a professional way, through a new bio-scientific argument it is justifiably demonstrated that Romania needs to develop inter-, multi-and transdisciplinary and to apply a real country project for the Carpatho-Danubiano-Pontic autochthon space in its European context.
Doctrine, legislation and jurisprudence have importance in defining typologies of biodiversity bioresources. Matters of doctrine mainly concern to philosophy of life and the complexity of practical and theoretical hypostases in the current global geopolitical order. In a globalized world, with a society strained by social disorder, among the risks humanity, food supply has become a source of insecurity, in addition to the decline of the natural resources, leading to an intensification of problems at local, zonal, regional and/or global level. Multidimensionality of the concept of security includes demographic and food security, energy and the environment, not only military and political-military level. All these components also guarantee the sovereignty of any state. Food security is a complex and general problem of humanity that all countries are responsible for. FAO defines food security as "access of all people directly to the food they need" to meet their vital functions and lead a healthy and active life ". The responsibility of the present generation is to ensure the right to food for future population, through an efficient, fair and rational management of the Earth bioresources. They belong to the common heritage of mankind and to face the challenges of the safety and food security ahead, on long-term we need a bioethic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach for the right to adequate available and accessible food.
The current major concerns of mankind with regard to biodiversity, food safety and security, demographic growth, pollution, the energy crisis, ecosystem productivity, environmental protection and environment are only a part of the contemporary concerns that environmental education must say the word.
An analysis of the situations that generates global environmental problems highlights the need for an extensive environmental curriculum with studies on human behavior, crisis and disaster management, bioeconomics, psychology of thinking styles, neuroscience, etc. The design of new programs should be directed to proactive behaviors and leadership, to entrepreneurship and innovation, with a direct impact on the ability to find solutions to solve environmental problems.
In the current context, food safety crises often have a direct impact on the health of the European population. Such moments bring chaos and confusion among the population, about food consumption, food systems, the ethics of businesses involved in the agri-food chain, or about guaranteeing their consumers’ rights.
Although the level of consumer information has increased in recent years, there is a need for a uniform approach to all topics of interest to them, from quality, cost, authenticity, maintenance of food safety, to contaminants and fraud.
Choosing a diet generates multiple effects on the quality of human life. Europeans are concerned about how food products are produced and consumed and which are the short and long-term effects, with attention being shifted from providing sufficient food. However, food consumption patterns of European citizens often have negative health consequences, endangering the future and making it necessary to change the way we feed and consume them. From farms to restaurants, we need to redefine the assumed concept of adequate nutrition in the 21st century: sustainable diets from sustainable food systems.
Eco-efficiency is based on environmental, social and economic principles, focusing not only on the use of fewer natural resources (raw materials) and energy but also on the cost-effective use of new technologies (eco-innovation) for the same volume of production and generation of low waste (efficient production). Agro-ecosystems globally, once with the development of the pesticide industry (plant protection products) and under the influence of aggressive marketing, have been based on the large-scale application of big amounts (perhaps too high) of pesticides. Many of the pesticides used in agriculture have a high persistence and degrade very slowly, which leads to the soil, water and even air pollution, with negative effects on plants, animals and, implicitly, humans. If these are used in short term and at low concentrations, pesticides can have beneficial effects (crop protection and their conservation and prevention of vector-borne disease) but in large quantities and applied over a long period of time can be toxic to humans and with a negative impact on the environment and ecosystems (degrading essential ecosystem services).
In accordance with fundamental rights and freedoms, everyone has the right to social security (Article 22) and to a standard of living that ensures his/her health and well-being and that of his/her family, this being materialized, among other things, through access to food (Article 25). The importance of food security is recognized in the international response to climate change and reflected in the context of global security. Food security is the primary objective of every nation and entire human community. The global food crisis and food insecurity at worldwide level has a continuous ascend trend, poverty being one of the determining factors that creates optimal conditions for the emergence or maintenance of a conflict. Agricultural biodiversity expressed through sustainability and stability in direct relation to the quality of the environment and life in the context of sustainable development, provides bio-food resources, the basis of the economy of future generations. Food safety is guaranteed not only by the safe production of products, but also by taking into account the whole food chain, by approaching the “from farm to fork” concept, but also by looking at the traceability of “food from fork to farm”. Traceability of bioresources is necessary to ensure food security. To be sustainable, agriculture must be productive, profitable, environmentally friendly and to conserve resources. The sustainable development of agriculture can not avoid the criterion of efficiency; this must be seen in three-dimensional space - economic, ecological and social, but in most cases economic efficiency is based on the lack of ecological and social efficiency.
Simona Nicoleta Stan, Amalia-Gianina Străteanu, George Cosmin Colang and Marian Nicolae
In the last decades, the awareness of the harmful effects of environmental pollution on the quality of life of human beings has greatly increased.
This awareness led to the legal regulation of the fundamental right to breathe fresh air, to drink clean water and to eat safe food. Among the concerns of the European institutions, we highlight the right to a healthy environment, as recognized in the Stockholm and Rio statements, but also the consumer’s right to use safe consumer products.
Creating a framework of principles and procedures in accordance with the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, to guide States in the formulation of bio-laws, policies or other instruments in the field of bioethics, legislation to protect and promote the interests of present and future generations and to emphasize the importance of biodiversity and its conservation as part of the common heritage of humanity.
Străteanu Amalia-Gianina, Simona Nicoleta Stan and Laurenţiu Ciornei
Education, in general, and environmental education, in special, is salvation and future of mankind, contributing by reorientation and interdisciplinarity of education to strengthening in values, behavior and lifestyles required for sustainable future development. The ecological and economic implications of better use of information on sustainable resource management lead to the development of perspectives, knowledge and skills that are so vital to environmental education (life skills education). Unfortunately, environmental criminality has reached fourth place in the category of illicit activities at the international level. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the relationship between economic fundaments, society and the environment is strictly necessary in order to understand the values that we want to reach, the effect on performance for identifying and promoting quality criteria. These criteria help the development of a toolkit and techniques needed to increase competences and creativity, in the context of opportunities, challenges and barriers imposed by environmental security. Public health, without an adequate living environment, cannot exist and for this reason, a global effort is mandatory to raise awareness and education of the population to fight against environmental crime on our planet.