There is much debate concerning the optimal load (OL) for power training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the number of sets performed for a given load on mean power output (Pmean). Fourteen physically active men performed 3 sets of 3 bench-press repetitions with 30, 40 and 50 kg. The highest mean power value (Pmax) across all loads and Pmean were compared when data were taken from the first set at each absolute load vs. from the best of three sets performed. Pmean increased from the first to the third set (from 5.99 ± 0.81 to 6.16 ± 0.96 W·kg−1, p = 0.017), resulting in a main effect of the set number (p < 0.05). At the 30 kg load Pmean increased from the first to the third set (from 6.01 ± 0.75 to 6.35 ± 0.85 W·kg−1; p < 0.01). No significant effect was observed at 40 and 50 kg loads (p > 0.05). Pmax and velocity were significantly affected by the method employed to determine Pmean at each load (p < 0.05). These results show a positive effect of the number of sets per load on Pmean, affecting Pmax, OL and potentially power training prescription.
This study aimed to examine the effect of running velocity on spatiotemporal parameters and lower-body stiffness of endurance runners, and the influence of the performance level on those adaptations. Twenty-two male runners (novice [NR], n = 12, and elite runners [ER], n = 10) performed an incremental running test with a total of 5 different running velocities (10, 12, 14, 16, 18 km/h). Each condition lasted 1 min (30 s acclimatization period, and 30 s recording period). Spatiotemporal parameters were measured using the OptoGait system. Vertical (Kvert) and leg (Kleg) stiffness were calculated according to the sine-wave method. A repeated measures ANOVA (2 x 5, group x velocities) revealed significant adaptations (p < 0.05) to increased velocity in all spatiotemporal parameters and Kvert in both NR and ER. ER showed a greater flight time (FT) and step angle (at 18 km/h) (p < 0.05), longer step length (SL) and lower step frequency (SF) (p < 0.05), whereas no between-group differences were found in contact time (CT) nor in the sub-phases during CT at any speed (p ≥ 0.05). ER also showed lower Kvert values at every running velocity (p < 0.05), and no differences in Kleg (p ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, lower SF and Kvert and, thereby, longer FT and SL, seem to be the main spatiotemporal characteristics of high-level runners compared to their low-level counterparts.
The purpose of this study was to determine test–retest reliability for peak barbell velocity (Vpeak) during the bench press (BP) and bench press throw (BPT) exercises for loads corresponding to 20–70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty physically active collegiate men conducted four evaluations after a preliminary BP 1RM determination (1RM·bw-1 = 1.02 ± 0.16 kg·kg-1). In counterbalanced order, participants performed two sessions of the BP in one week and two sessions of the BPT in another week. Recovery time between sessions within the same week was 48 hours and recovery time between sessions of different weeks was 120 hours. On each day of evaluation the individual load-velocity relationship at each tenth percentile (20–70% of 1RM) in a Smith machine for the BP or BPT was determined. Participants performed three attempts per load, but only the best repetition (highest Vpeak), registered by a linear position transducer, was analysed. The BPT resulted in a significantly lower coefficient of variation (CV) for the whole load–velocity relationship, compared to the BP (2.48% vs. 3.22%; p = 0.040). Test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from r = 0.94-0.85 for the BPT and r = 0.91-0.71 for the BP (p < 0.001). The reduction in the biological within-subject variation in BPT exercise could be promoted by the braking phase that obligatorily occurs during a BP executed with light or moderate loads. Therefore, we recommend the BPT exercise for a most accurate assessment of upper-body velocity.
The present study aimed (1) to compare loaded squat jump performance after an acute and chronic exposure to a moderate natural altitude between normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia conditions, and (2) to analyze the effect of an altitude training camp on loaded jump squat development. Sixteen male swimmers (17.1 ± 0.8 years) took part in a 17-day training camp at a natural moderate altitude. They were randomly tested in counterbalanced order on days 1 and 3 in normoxia and hypoxia (pretest) and on days 15 and 17 again in normoxia and hypoxia (posttest). The peak velocity reached with loads equivalent to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of swimmers’ pretest body weight in the loaded squat jump exercise was the dependent variable analyzed. An overall increase in peak velocity during the test performed in hypoxia of 6.5% in pretest (p < 0.001, ES = 0.98) and 4.5% in posttest (p < 0.001, ES = 0.81) was observed. An overall increment in peak velocity of 4.0% considering the data for normoxia tests (p < 0.001, ES = 0.61) and 2.1% considering the data for hypoxia tests (p = 0.008, ES = 0.36) was achieved after the altitude training camp. These results highlight the beneficial effects of hypobaric hypoxia on jump performance after short and longer term exposure to a natural moderate altitude. The increase in loaded squat jump performance following the 17-day training camp suggests that altitude training could constitute a favorable stimulus in explosive strength.
This study aimed to examine the correlation of different dry land strength and power tests with swimming start performance. Twenty international level female swimmers (age 15.3 ± 1.6 years, FINA point score 709.6 ± 71.1) performed the track freestyle start. Additionally, dry land tests were conducted: a) squat (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), b) squat jumps with additional resistance equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% of swimmers’ body weight [BW]), and c) leg extension and leg flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions. Correlations between dry land tests and start times at 5, 10 and 15 m were quantified through Pearson’s linear correlation coefficients (r). The peak bar velocity reached during the jumps with additional resistance was the variable most correlated to swimming start performance (r = -0.57 to -0.66 at 25%BW; r = -0.57 to -0.72 at 50%BW; r = -0.59 to -0.68 at 75%BW; r = -0.50 to - 0.64 at 100%BW). A few significant correlations between the parameters of the SJ and the CMJ with times of 5 and 10 m were found, and none with the isometric variables. The peak velocity reached during jumps with external loads relative to BW was found a good indicator of swimming start performance.
This study aimed to compare force, velocity, and power output collected under different loads, as well as the force-velocity (F-V) relationship between three measurement methods. Thirteen male judokas were tested under four loading conditions (20, 40, 60, and 80 kg) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) exercise, while mechanical output data were collected by three measurement methods: the Samozino's method (SAM), a force platform (FP), and a linear velocity transducer (LVT). The variables of the linear F-V relationship (maximum force [F0], maximum velocity [V0], F-V slope, and maximum power [P0]) were determined. The results revealed that (1) the LVT overestimated the mechanical output as compared to the SAM and FP methods, especially under light loading conditions, (2) the SAM provided the lowest magnitude for all mechanical output, (3) the F-V relationships were highly linear either for the SAM (r = 0.99), FP (r = 0.97), and LVT (r = 0.96) methods, (4) the F-V slope obtained by the LVT differed with respect to the other methods due to a larger V0 (5.28 ± 1.48 m·s-1) compared to the SAM (2.98 ± 0.64 m·s-1) and FP (3.06 ± 0.42 m·s-1), and (5) the methods were significantly correlated for F0 and P0, but not for V0 or F-V slope. These results only support the accuracy of the SAM and FP to determine the F-V relationship during the CMJ exercise. The very large correlations of the SAM and LVT methods with respect to the FP (presumed gold-standard) for the mean values of force, velocity and power support their concurrent validity for the assessment of mechanical output under individual loads.