Hopkinson Effect Study in Spinel and Hexagonal Ferrites
The magnetic susceptibility shows a Hopkinson peak just below the Curie temperature TC when heating the selected hexagonal and spinel ferrite samples. It is proposed that this peak can be associated with a transition from stable magnetic state to super-paramagnetic relaxation above the blocking temperature up to the TC. The Hopkinson effect results are compared with SEM micrographs of both studied hexagonal and spinel ferrites.
The objective of this study was to determine the variables that predicted serve efficacy in elite men’s volleyball, in sets with different quality of opposition. 3292 serve actions were analysed, of which 2254 were carried out in high quality of opposition sets and 1038 actions were in low quality of opposition sets, corresponding to a total of 24 matches played during the Men’s European Volleyball Championships held in 2011. The independent variables considered in this study were the serve zone, serve type, serving player, serve direction, reception zone, receiving player and reception type; the dependent variable was serve efficacy and the situational variable was quality of opposition sets. The variables that acted as predictors in both high and low quality of opposition sets were the serving player, reception zone and reception type. The serve type variable only acted as a predictor in high quality of opposition sets, while the serve zone variable only acted as a predictor in low quality of opposition sets. These results may provide important guidance in men’s volleyball training processes.
The mechanisms controlling soil succession in floodplains remain much less studied than in uplands due to the complexity that flooddriven erosion and sedimentation bring into soil development processes. The amount of organic matter and C generally grows with soil ageing and is controlled by multiple and interacting allogenic and autogenic factors, but to what extent the production of organic matter by in situ vegetation contributes to soil formation in floodplains remains unknown. The objective of this work was to explore the importance of autochthonous organic matter versus allochthonous organic matter in organic C accumulation of floodplain forest soils along a vegetation succession and hydrogeomorphic connectivity gradient. Physicochemical analyses of sediment collected after one single flood event in a large Mediterranean floodplain (Middle Ebro, a 9th order regulated river reach in NE Spain) were used to estimate the proportion of organic C found in the topsoil (first 10 cm) samples of young (<25 yr), mature (25-50 yr) and old (>50 yr) floodplain forests that had an allochthonous (i.e., % of organic C deposited by floods) or autochthonous (i.e., % of organic C produced in situ by vegetation) source. Results of this exploratory study showed that the accumulation of autochthonous organic C in the floodplain topsoil only occurred in floodplain forests older than 50 year-old, but even then, it was more than six-fold less abundant than that with an allochthonous origin. Moreover, a linear mixed effect model showed that, although autochthonous organic C accumulation was mainly explained by the forest structure, a small proportion of it was also controlled by an allogenic factor, the groundwater table depth. Then, groundwater table depth variations could be partly controlling autochthonous organic matter production and decomposition in this Mediterranean floodplain. Although flow regulation and embankment has dramatically limited the hydrogeomorphic dynamics of the river, allogenic overbank sedimentation during flood events still controls floodplain soil succession and organic C accumulation in the floodplain.
The erector spinae plane block is a novel ultrasound-guided technique that has recently been described for the management of acute and chronic thoracic pain. Currently an increasingly number of indications for the ESP block have been published. Nevertheless, the anatomy, mechanism of action, doses and volume of local anesthetic needed are still unclear. The aim of this narrative review is study this new block with base on the updated medical literature.