Background: Dental implants are useful tools and represent a widely spread technique for oral rehabilitation. Their long standingness is highly influenced by the mechanical and geometrical properties of the surrounding osseous tissue in which they are placed. In some unsuccessful cases though, the dental implant is exposed to masticatory forces and other functional acts, and osseous tissue may resorb near its vicinity, leading to the dental implants loss. We investigated the strain distribution inside the fixating substrate, given certain stages of its deterioration near the dental implants.
Material and methods: For our investigations we used cilindro-conical screw-type dental which were submitted to vertical forces between 0-1000 N. The dental implants were fixed inside a plastic material used in photo-elastic measurements.
To evaluate the strain distribution inside the fixing substrate, we used a non-contact, experimental investigation tool, the Video Image Correlation (VIC-3D) optical system. This system allows the implementation in the dental implants optimisation from stress-strain state point of view.
Results: The strain field distribution inside the fixating substrate was measured at three different levels of the dental implant, when it was loaded alone and in the case when there were loaded two dental implants simultaneously.
Conclusions: The most stresses are concentrated in the neck-area of the dental implant. If there are loaded two or more dental implants simultaneously, the distance between them influences strain distribution. The measurements were conducted in vitro and do not represent the in vivo conditions, but serve further important facts regarding biomechanical properties of dental implants.