Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author: Alina Kolańczyk x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Alina Kolańczyk

Abstract

The paper delineates a study of executive functions (EFs), construed as procedural working memory (WM), from a motivational perspective. Since WM theories and motivation theories are both concerned with purposive activity, the role of implicit evaluations (affects) observed in goal pursuit can be anticipated to arise also in the context of cognitive control, e.g., during the performance of the Stroop task. The role of positive and negative affect in goal pursuit consists in controlling attention resources according to the goal and situational requirements. Positive affect serves to maintain goals and means in the scope of attention (EF1), whereas negative affect activates the inhibition of non-functional contents, e.g., distractors and irrelevant objects (resulting in attention disengagement; EF2). Adaptation to conflict proceeds via sequential triggering of negative and positive affect (EF3). Moreover, it was demonstrated that the focus on action or reflection changes the scope of contents subjected to implicit (affective) control. Therefore, I suggest that the motivational system, to a large extent, plays the role of the Central Executive. The paper opens a discussion and proposes studies on affective mechanisms of cognitive control.

Open access

Alina Kolańczyk, Marta Reszko and Paweł Mordasiewicz

Abstract

Retrieval Induced Forgetting (RIF) refers to the finding that the retrieval of some items from memory (RP+) impairs the retrieval of related items (RP-). The RIF effect is indicated by a comparison of RP- with unrelated but also tobe- remembered items (NRP). Since RIF appears during intentional memorizing of words, therefore we checked whether it depends on attentional control (AC) involved in goal maintenance, and also if implicit evaluations of to-be-remembered (RP) contents moderate this process (causing e.g. inhibition). In three experiments, each including AC as the independent variable, we found AC to be related to the RIF effect. Only high but not low AC subjects showed the presence of RIF. The results of the affective priming procedure showed that implicit evaluations of NRP items moderate the relationship of high AC and the RIF effect. The explanation why temporarily devaluated NRP could enhance the RIF effect and suggestion concerning future research summarize the article.

Open access

Marta Roczniewska and Alina Kolańczyk

Abstract

Research shows that goal-relevant objects are rated positively, which results from their functionality towards the aim. In previous studies these objects were always external to the agent. However, relevant knowledge of self is also potentially accessible during goal pursuit, as self-esteem is an indicator of aim’s feasibility. In two experimental studies we tested whether goal activation affects temporal changes in automatic evaluations of personality traits related to the dimensions of agency and communion. We administered affect misattribution procedure where participants rated neutral Chinese hexagrams proceeded by words describing traits (75 ms masked presentation). The list of words comprised agentic (e.g. agile) and communal (e.g. trustworthy) traits. The rating took place twice - before and after introducing a manual task. In the first study, goal activation led to slightly more positive implicit evaluations of agentic and more negative evaluation of communal traits, which is consistent with empirical data on self-perception depending on agentic knowledge rather than communal one. In the second study we showed that goal activation led to changes only for promotion-, but not prevention-oriented individuals, which is explained by motivation strength. The results indicate that valuation of traits changes temporarily along with goal pursuit.

Open access

Alina Kolańczyk and Marta Roczniewska

Abstract

The main hypothesis of studies presented in this article is that episodic implicit evaluations (affects) toward task-relevant objects determine thinking and decisions by actively placing them within or outside the scope of attention. In these studies we also aimed to test the impact of regulatory focus on implicit evaluations and goal pursuit. We applied the Promotion-Prevention Self-control Scale as a measure of mind-set during thinking in the Wason Selection Task (WST) in Study 1 and Island Decision Game (IDG) in Study 2. Directly after learning of the tasks, participants evaluated (in affective priming paradigm) objects that constituted the task’s content. The findings are in line with the hypothesis stating that goals influence the way in which objects are automatically evaluated. The effects of promotion mind-set were more pronounced in both studies. Promotion-focused individuals positively assessed objects that serve as a confirmation. The implicit evaluations by prevention-oriented individuals disclosed their falsifying approach to the WST. The positive implicit evaluation of correct objects suggests their sensitivity to information useful for falsification and is consistent with their tendency to cautiously self-control thinking.