Introduction: Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, defective haematopoiesis, and a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and cancers. FA was first described in 1927 by the Swiss pediatrician Guido Fanconi. The diagnosis is based on morphological abnormalities, hematologic abnormalities (pancytopenia, macrocytic anemia and progressive bone marrow failure) and genetic tests (cariograma).
Case report: We present the case of a child with Fanconi anemia. Although skin and bone morphological abnormalities were present from birth, diagnosis was suspected at 11 years old.
Conclusions: Fanconi anemia is a heterogeneous condition that can present a variety of congenital defects but invariably results in defective haemopoiesis, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality.