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Alina Chrząstek

Palaeontology of the Middle Turonian limestones of the Nysa Kłodzka Graben (Sudetes, SW Poland): biostratigraphical and palaeogeographical implications

The ammonites Lewesiceras peramplum Mantell and ?Lewesiceras sp. are reported from the Upper Cretaceous in the Nysa Kłodzka Graben; they date from the Middle Turonian and ?Coniacian, respectively. The Middle Turonian limestones of the Stara Bystrzyca quarry contain an abundant assemblage of inoceramids (Inoceramus cuvieri Sowerby and I. lamarcki Parkinson) and other bivalves, including oysters, as well as brachiopods and trace fossils. Micropalaeontological data show the presence of foraminifers and siliceous sponge spiculae, bryozoans, ostracods and fragments of bivalves and gastropods. The Middle Turonian calcareous deposits belongs to the upper part of the Inoceramus lamarcki Zone (late Middle Turonian) and were deposited on a shallow, subtidal offshore shelf. They overlie the Middle Turonian Bystrzyca and Długopole Sandstones, which represent foreshore-shoreface delta deposits. The fossil assemblage suggests a moderate- to low-energy, normal-salinity environment with occasionally an oxygen deficit.

Open access

Alina Chrząstek and Monika Wypych

Abstract

The Coniacian quartz sandstones (Żerkowice Member, Rakowice Wielkie Formation) that crop out at quarries near Czaple-Nowa Wieś Grodziska (North Sudetic Synclinorium) contain a low-diversity assemblage of trace fossils: Gyrochorte isp., Ophiomorpha nodosa Lundgren, 1891, Ophiomorpha isp., Phycodes cf. curvipalmatum (Pollard, 1981), ?Phycodes isp., Planolites cf. beverleyensis (Billings, 1862), Thalassinoides paradoxicus Woodward, 1830 and ?Thalassinoides isp. Moreover, interesting compound burrow systems, here referred to as Thalassinoides-Phycodes cf. palmatus and ?Thalassinoides-Phycodes, were recognised at the Czaple Quarry. Additionally, ?Gyrochorte isp., Phycodes cf. flabellum (Miller and Dyer, 1878) and ?Treptichnus isp. were encountered at correlative levels in the Rakowice Małe Quarry. Some of these ichnotaxa have not been recorded previously from Coniacian sandstones of the Żerkowice Member. Additionally, in slabs of these sandstones, the gastropod Nerinea bicincta Bronn, 1836 and the bivalve Lima haidingeri Zittel, 1866 were found. These interesting finds, in particular the gastropods, were already noted from the study area in the first half of the twentieth century by Scupin (1912–1913). Ethologically, the trace fossil assemblage is represented by domichnia or domichnia/fodinichnia (Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides), fodinichnia (Phycodes) and pascichnia (Gyrochorte, Planolites). The compound burrow systems (Thalassinoides-Phycodes) are interpreted as dwelling/feeding structures. The possible tracemakers are crustaceans (Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides) or worm-like animals (annelids and other) (Planolites, ?Phycodes, Gyrochorte and ?Treptichnus). The assemblage of trace fossils is characteristic of the Skolithos ichnofacies and Cruziana ichnofacies, typical of shallow-marine settings. Ichnological studies, as well as the presence of accompanying fossils (bivalves, gastropods), confirm the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Żerkowice Member sandstones by Leszczyński (2010). That author interpreted the Coniacian sandstones as bar and storm deposits laid down in a shallow epicontinental sea (mainly the foreshore-upper shoreface; up to the middle shoreface) under normal oxygenation and salinity, in soft substrate, above fair-weather wave base. The deposition of the Żerkowice Member sandstones is linked to a regression that started after uplift of the southeastern part of the North Sudetic Synclinorium.

Open access

Alina Chrząstek

Abstract

The following trace fossils have been recognised in the Lower Muschelkalk of Raciborowice Gorne (North Sudetic Synclinorium, SW Poland): Archaeonassa fossulata, Balanoglossites triadicus, ?Gastrochaenolites isp., Lockeia isp., Palaeophycus tubularis, Palaeophycus isp., ?Planolites beverleyensis, P. montanus, Planolites isp., ?Protovirgularia isp., Rhizocorallium commune var. auriforme, R. commune var. irregulare, R. jenense, Skolithos linearis, Thalassinoides suevicus and Trypanites weisei. Coprolites and an unidentified trace fossil A are also described. The trace fossils allow the discrimination of five ichnoassociations in the Raciborowice Gorne section: (IA 1) Rhizocorallium- Pholeus, (IA 2) Rhizocorallium-Palaeophycus, (IA 3) Thalassinoides, (IA 4) Trypanites-Balanoglossites and (IA 5) Planolites-Palaeophycus. The Lower Muschelkalk succession was deposited on a shallow carbonate ramp affected by frequent storms. Deposition commenced with sedimentation in a restricted lagoon on the inner ramp with a short episode of sabkha formation. It continued on the middle and outer ramp and then on a skeletal shoal of the outer ramp and in an open basin. Ichnoassociation IA 5 is related to a maximum transgression that commenced with the deposition of the Spiriferina Bed and which probably marked the opening of the Silesian-Moravian Gate. The basin underwent two shallowing episodes, as evidenced by ichnoassociations IA 3-IA 4, resulting in the formation of hardgrounds. Bathymetric changes in the Raciborowice Gorne section correspond well with a general transgressive trend in the Germanic Basin.

Open access

K. Chrząstek and A. Wieliczko

Abstract

The synthetic unmethylated oligodeoxynucleotides with CpG motifs (CpG ODN) were shown to activate Toll-like receptor 21 (TLR21) and stimulate the innate and adaptive immune system. In this study we tested the expression of TLR21, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA in the blood after subcutaneous and intraocular application of the class B CpG ODN in chicken. The relative expression of mRNA of TLR21, IFN-γ and IL-1β were quantified at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h post-stimulation. The study revealed that IFN-γ mRNA expression was significantly upregulated 12 h after subcutaneous stimulation with a high and low dose of ODN CpG, whereas the IL-1β mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated 3 and 72 h after subcutaneous administration. After intraocular administration, the IL-1β mRNA levels were the highest at 24 h post-application, albeit not specifically. This data indicates that class B CpG ODN has the ability to induce TLR21 response in blood when administered parenterally in chicken. In contrast, intraocular administration of CpG ODN was not able to produce a significant increase in cytokine mRNA expression in blood. The data suggest that additional stimulus, e.g. the antigen, may be needed on the site of mucosal administration to activate systemic immune response.