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Alina Bogliş, Florin Tripon and Claudia Bănescu

Abstract

Molecular genetic testing in craniosynostosis leads to the detection of the mutations in the genes encoding fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), providing information about the etiology of the genetic disorder. Muenke syndrome is produced by p.Pro250Arg mutation in FGFR3 gene with evidence of variable expressivity, representing 8% of the syndromic craniosynostoses.

Here, we present the identification of a p.Pro250Arg pathogenic mutation (c.749C>G) in the FGFR3 gene using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probes Amplification (MLPA) analysis in conjunction with Sanger sequencing in a patient with craniosynostosis and mild intellectual disability. The MLPA analysis detected a reduced signal of the probe, at the site of the c.749C>G mutation, defined by the presence of one allele of C749>G mutation in the FGFR3 gene, exon 7. Sanger sequencing was performed for confirmation and identified heterozygous p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant (c.749C>G) in exon 7 of the FGFR3.

In conclusion, we assessed the validity and clinical utility of the combined molecular genetic techniques, MLPA analysis, and Sanger sequencing, for craniosynostosis and intellectual disability, improving not only the diagnostic testing but also the genetic counseling and management of the disorder.

Open access

Boglis Alina, Rac Corina Dana, Moldovan Elena, Duicu Carmen and Bănescu Claudia

Abstract

Introduction: Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 14q (OMIM 613457) are very rare conditions.

Case presentation: We present a 3-month-old male patient with dysmorphic features and congenital heart defect associated with a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 14q, identified by cytogenetic analysis as 46,XY,del(14)(q11q12). Dysmorphic features included microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, micrognathia, large and poorly folded auricular lobes and long digits. He also present rectus abdominis diastasis and umbilical hernia. The cranial computer tomography showed partial agenesis of the corpus callosum and ventriculomegaly.

Conclusions: Cytogenetic analysis or molecular techniques are necessary to establish the correct diagnosis in patients with multiple congenital anomalies in association with proximal or distal interstitial 14q deletion.

Open access

George Andrei Crauciuc, Florin Tripon, Alina Bogliş, Amalia Făgărăşan and Claudia Bănescu

Abstract

Small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) is a rare chromosomal abnormality and is detected in about 0.3% in cases with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) and/or developmental delay. Different techniques for investigation of cases with MCA and/or developmental delay are available ranging from karyotyping to molecular cytogenetic technique and ultimately multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Here we present a patient with multiple congenital anomalies for which classical cytogenetic technique was used as a first step in diagnosis and the results being confirmed by MLPA. The karyotype disclosed a sSMC considered to be a fragment of chromosome 22. The MLPA analysis using SALSA MLPA probemix P064-C2 Microdeletion Syndromes-1B confirmed the karyotype results, and according to the manufacturer’s recommendation we performed another confirmation analysis with MLPA probemix P311-B1 Congenital Heart Disease and MLPA probemix P250-B2 DiGeorge. We also suspected an Emanuel syndrome and performed another MLPA analysis with SALSA MLPA probemix P036-E3 Subtelomeres Mix 1 and probemix P070-B3 Subtelomeres Mix 2B for investigation of subtelomeric region that revealed a duplication of 11q25 region and the confirmation was performed using SALSA MLPA probemix P286-B2 Human Telomere-11.

In conclusion, we consider that MLPA is a valuable method for identification of sSMC in children with developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Genetic diagnosis using different molecular techniques, such as MLPA, for increasing accuracy in identification of chromosomal structural aberrations has an important role in clinical diagnosis and in genetic counselling and our case explain the importance of using a specific laboratory technique for each stage of diagnosis.

Open access

Andrei Crauciuc, Florin Tripon, Andreea Gheorghiu, Georgiana Nemes, Alina Boglis and Claudia Banescu

Abstract

We assume that the CRISPR Cas9 theory must be delimited by applicability, because the consequences of long term DNA manipulation remain unknown. Moreover, the irreversibility of this procedure should instigate researchers to reserved opinions.

Usefulness as well as benefits of CRISPR Cas9 made it one of the most popular and used genome editing technique. But with its huge potential, ethical and safety concerns emerge. Therefore, before continuing research in this direction we should have a well organized system that is able to make that differentiation between research and reproduction. However we truly believe in the future of genetic engineering and with the CRISPR-Cas9 system we expect that the opportunity of treating now so called incurable diseases arises. Time is all we need.