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Alina Bączkiewicz

Abstract

For each of 8 species of leafy liverworts, 9-10 populations were sampled in 2-3 regions of Poland. In total, 5 regions were taken into account: the Tatra National Park, Bieszczady Mts., Białowieża Forest, Pomeranian Lake District, and Suwałki Lake District. Populations of most of the studied species did not show any correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic distances. Clear differences between regional groups of populations were found in only 2 species. The other species showed a complete or partial lack of genetic differentiation between groups of populations from various geographic regions. Generally, however, mountain populations had greater genetic diversity (H T, H S) and coefficient of genetic differentiation (G ST) than lowland populations. In the Tatra National Park all the studied liverworts turned out to be more diverse than in the Bieszczady Mts. Białowieża Forest created a uniform group, standing out markedly from mountainous populations but population in this region had slightly smaller genetic diversity, then in the mountains. In the Pomeranian and Suwałki Lake Districts, genetic diversity of liverworts was significantly lower than in mountains. The decrease in diversity in these regions is a likely consequence of habitat fragmentation (causing population depletion) combined with negative effects of urban development. Habitat fragmentation results in genetic drift and inbreeding depression, which cause a decrease in genetic diversity. In the Pomeranian Lake District the level of total diversity (H T) and intra-population diversity (H S) was markedly higher than in the Suwałki Lake District. It may be linked to differences in climate, in the Suwałki Lake District climate is stronger.

Open access

Alina Bączkiewicz

Abstract

This monograph presents results of research on genetic diversity of 8 leafy liverwort species differing in reproductive mode. The frst 4 species in Poland are regarded as sterile and reproduce only vegetatively: Bazzania trilobata, Trichoc-olea tomentella, Lophozia hatcheri, and Mylia anomala. The next 4 are fertile, including the monoecious Lepidozia reptans and Calypogeia integristipula as well as the dioecious Mylia taylorii and Tritomaria quinquedentata. For each species, 9-10 populations were sampled. In total, 4744 gametophytes from 73 populations were examined by isozyme analysis. The level of their genetic diversity (total, H T, and within populations, HS) was high, higher than in thallose liverworts, but comparable to the genetic diversity of mosses or even some species of vascular plants. Thus the traditional opinion that the entire group of liverworts has a much lower level of genetic diversity than mosses is erroneous, as it holds true only for thallose liverworts (Metzgeriidae and Marchantiopsida). My results indicate that the effect of reproductive mode on genetic diversity in leafy liverworts is lower than in vascular plants. Sterile and fertile species of liverworts exhibited similar levels of genetic diversity. Moreover, both groups included species that had both high and low levels of H T and H S. In fertile species, monoecious and dioecious species also did not differ signifcantly in genetic diversity, but dioecious liverworts had slightly higher total diversity (H T) than monoecious species. In most of the studied leafy liverworts, the share of genetic diversity within populations in the total genetic diversity of species is greater than between populations. The percentage share of variation among populations (ΦPT) in the total genetic variation was correlated with the total genetic diversity of the species (H T). In species with high H T, differences between populations tended to be rather small. By contrast, in species with lower H T, the percentage share of differentiation among populations in the total diversity of species was much higher. My results confrm theory, based on studies by Kimura, that the main causes of genetic diversity of bryophytes are neutral somatic mutations developing in various vegetative parts of plants. The separation of branches or other plant sections with somatic mutations, followed by the growth of new shoots, can increase the level of genetic diversity. The high level of genetic diversity in sterile liverworts indicates that vegetative reproduction has a greater infuence on the level of genetic diversity than recombination. My results suggest also that mutation rates are similar in closely related species, but species with a wider ecological range exhibit higher genetic diversity because the variability of habitats can infuence the rate and type of somatic mutations. Accordingly, species inhabiting more diverse environments may be more genetically diverse. Patches of the studied species generally consisted of several genotypes (MLGs). Two types of distribution of genotypes in patches were noticed. Patches of species with low total diversity (H T), were often dominated by 1-2 genotypes, which constituted the major part of a patch. In patches of species with higher H T, there was no tendency to form patches with predomination of a single genotype. Different genotypes constituted similar proportions of a patch. In all the studied leafy liverwort species there was a high degree of repeatability of the same genotypes (MLGs) in plants from various patches within the same population or in various populations. Probably the main cause of this is the independent repeatability of the same mutations in different specimens.

Open access

Alina Bączkiewicz, Patrycja Gonera and Katarzyna Buczkowska

Abstract

The genus Aneura is represented in Poland by two species - A. pinguis and A. maxima. A. pinguis in contrast to A. maxima is a complex of cryptic species temporarily named A. pinguis species: A, B, C, and E. All species of the A. pinguis complex and A. maxima differ in their geographic distribution and habitat preferences. A. pinguis species A grows mainly on humus over limestone rocks in the Western Carpathians, A. pinguis species B occurs mainly on clay soil in Bieszczady Mts. and in clayish areas of lowlands, A. pinguis species C grows both in lowlands and mountains and it occupies mostly wet sandy soils, on the shores of oligotrophic lakes and river and mountain stream banks, A. pinguis species E is connected with calcareous rocks in flowing water in mountains. A. maxima grows over the country - both in lowlands and mountains, in marshes situated on the river banks.

Open access

Zbigniew Celka, Katarzyna Buczkowska, Alina Bączkiewicz and Maria Drapikowska

Genetic Differentiation Among Geographically Close Populations of Malva Alcea

We estimated similarity and differences at the level of isozymes among populations of Malva alcea from various habitats and parts of Central Europe. Our analyses revealed the activity of 8 enzyme systems: 6 polymorphic (PGI, IDH, PX, DIA, PGM, SHD KB) and 2 monomorphic (GOT, ME). The mean number of alleles per locus is 2.12. Nei's genetic distances among populations are small, not exceeding 0.3. Mean values of Nei's genetic similarity are typical of populations of the same species. Grouping by Upgma based on Nei's genetic distances showed that the distinguished groups are only partly correlated with geographic region.

Open access

Katarzyna Buczkowska, Alina Bączkiewicz and Patrycja Gonera

Abstract

Calypogeia azurea, a widespread, subboreal-montane liverwort species, is one of a few representatives of the Calypogeia genus that are characterized by the occurrence of blue oil bodies. The aim of the study was to investigate the genetic variation and population structure of C. azurea originating from different parts of its distribution range (Europe and North America). Plants of C. azurea were compared with C. peruviana, another Calypogeia species with blue oil bodies. In general, 339 gametophytes from 15 populations of C. azurea were examined. Total gene diversity (HT) estimated on the basis of nine isozyme loci of C. azurea at the species level was 0.201. The mean Nei’s genetic distance between European populations was equal to 0.083, whereas the mean genetic distance between populations originating from Europe and North America was 0.413. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 69% of C. azurea genetic variation was distributed among regions (Europe and North America), 15% - among populations within regions, and 16% - within populations. Our study revealed that C. azurea showed genetic diversity within its geographic distribution. All examined samples classified as C. azurea differed in respect of isozyme patterns from C. peruviana.

Open access

Katarzyna Buczkowska, Jakub Sawicki, Monika Szczecińska, Stanisław Rosadziński, Mariola Rabska and Alina Bączkiewicz

Two morphologically distinct groups of the Calypogeia fissa complex were found in Europe

Two genetically distinct groups (PS and PB) detected previously within the C. fissa complex in Europe were studied with respect to 47 morphometric characters. The two examined groups differed statistically significantly with respect to 34 morphological traits. The forward stepwise method of discriminant analysis showed that the set of diagnostic characters could be limited to nine. The best diagnostic features were morphological characters describing the shape of leaf: length and width of leaf, height of dorsal part and distance from the apex to the ventral base of the leaf, length of the 3rd coordinate of the leaf, and underleaf width as well as characters of the stem: length of internodes and size of internode cells. Plants of the PS group were smaller (shoot width range from 922-1780 μm) than plants of the PB group (1600-3900 μm). Based on genetically identified samples, classification functions for each group were computed and the derived functions were used for the classification of samples from the herbarium collections. The principal component analysis and dendrogram constructed on the basis of Euclidean distance, using the set of diagnostic characters, divided the examined samples into two groups that correlated with groups detected by isozyme markers. Results of multivariable analysis showed that it is possible to satisfactorily characterise morphologically both genetically distinct groups of the C. fissa complex.

Open access

Ewa Maria Pawlaczyk, Alina Bączkiewicz, Katarzyna Buczkowska and Maria Anna Bobowicz

Abstract

Progeny from 19 family lines of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from a small, native and isolated population from the Tisovik Reserve (Belarusian part of Białowieża Primeval Forest) growing in an experimental plot near Hajnówka (Polish part of Białowieża Primeval Forest) were analysed in terms of 4 nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and 9 isozyme systems with 14 loci. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variation within and between progeny lines. Analysis of isozyme loci showed that all progeny lines, except the progeny lines T6 and T16, were characterised by an excess of heterozygotes and 20% of the detected variation occurred between progeny. Progeny formed two groups. Microsatellite loci showed that 6 progeny lines demonstrated an excess of heterozygotes and 12 an excess of homozygotes. On an average, the population was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 14% of the detected variation occurred between offspring and the remaining 86% within progeny lines. The most distinct progeny line was Tl, where the highest number of alleles per locus was detected. Generally, progeny of Tisovik is characterised by high level of differentiation as the offspring of isolated population that have limited number of individuals to crossing (only 20). In some progeny line, the private alleles that are detected may be the result of pollination from Polish part of Białowieża Forest where in 1920s and 1930s of XX century had planted the seedling of silver fir of unknown origin. The substructuring of population is observed, and the detected deficiency of heterozygotes may be ostensible as a result of the Wahlund effect. Such pattern of genetic structure could also be an effect of harsh environmental conditions exerting selection pressure and modifying the genetic composition of this population.

Open access

Katarzyna Buczkowska, Patrycja Gonera, Alina Bączkiewicz, Stanisław Rosadziński and Mariola Rabska

Abstract

Nine species of the genus Calypogeia Raddi are currently known from Europe: C. azurea, C. integristipula, C. neesiana,C. suecica, C. muelleriana, C. sphagnicola, C. fissa, C. arguta, and C. azorica. Recently, another species, morphologically resembling C. muelleriana but genetically distinct from it, was detected using isozyme markers. In the present study, relationships between the newly detected species (C. sp. nov.) and typical C. muelleriana were analyzed using the DNA sequencesdata of three regions from the chloroplast genome: introns of trnG and trnL genes and intergenic spacer trnH-psbA. Calypogeia sp. nov. differs from C. muelleriana s. str. (typical form) in all examined chloroplast regions. It differs as well from C. azurea, which was used as a reference species. The number of fixed nucleotide differences between C. muelleriana s. str. and C. sp. nov. is almost the same as between C. muelleriana s. str. and C. azurea. The results of the present study suggest a closer affinity of C. sp. nov. to C. azurea than to C. muelleriana s. str. in Europe, C. muelleriana s. str. was noted in Poland, Germany, Holland, United Kingdom and Azores. Samples determined as C. sp. nov., besides Poland, were so far detected also in North America

Open access

Ewa M. Pawlaczyk, Alina Bączkiewicz, Piotr Wawrzyniak, Magdalena Czołpińska, Patrycja Gonera and Katarzyna Buczkowska-Chmielewska

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to describe the variation between the populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra based on the morphological and anatomical traits of their needles, and to investigate the relationship between the observed variation and environmental conditions (altitude and substrate). Two-year-old needles were collected from 180 individuals of six populations of P. mugo growing in the Tatra Mts. Two populations were classified as dense, located at 1360–1450 m altitude, and the remaining four formed loose clusters and were situated at 1500–1650 m altitude. Four of the populations are growing on granite and two on a limestone substrate. The natural variation of 10 morpho-anatomical and 3 synthetic needle traits was measured. In addition to descriptive statistics, the analyses of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey test and principal component analysis were computed. We also estimated Pearson correlation coefficients for the examined needle traits and altitude as well as substrate. Our results indicate that the P. mugo populations differ significantly with regard to the investigated traits for which the Trzydniowiański Wierch population was the most distinct. The observed pattern of variability is largely caused by differences in stomatal traits and these features are positive correlated with altitude. Additionally, populations growing on granite have larger values for most of the examined traits compared to populations growing on limestone.