Elena Horská, Alim Pulatov and Ashirali Abdirashidov
This article analyses past and current state of plastic bags usage and reviews the major challenges in addressing the issue of its reduction with emphasis on failure and success of the chosen policy. Given the heterogeneous impacts of government policies, it is important to understand the consumer behaviour and motivation for purchasing plastic bags. This can help to make a fundamental shift in reduction of plastic bags usage by the demand side, which supplement government’s efforts to address the issue from the supply side.
The paper deals with application of the DPSIR diagram approach to the Aral Sea ecosystem problem. The DPSIR diagram, a causal framework for environment-society interaction, represents complex connections between the shrinking of the Aral Sea and various social and ecological problems in the region. Examining the components of this interdisciplinary approach - economic forces, pressures, states, impacts and responses could lead to a common response to the environmental, social and economic challenges in the Aral Sea region.
Azizbek Daujanov, Rolf Groeneveld, Alim Pulatov and Wim J.M. Heijman
Most irrigated lands of Central Asia suffer from land degradation, and unsustainable agricultural practices are one of the factors contributing to land degradation. Conservation agriculture (CA) is seen as a way to mitigate land degradation and rationalize resource use. The aim of this article is to investigate the efficiency of CA implementation in the Syrdarya province of Uzbekistan, Central Asia by carrying out a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The CBA was conducted for a hypothetical situation where the farm decides to switch from conventional agriculture to CA. Unlike the previous studies, this study investigates complete crop rotation cycle in the long-term period. The study outcomes suggest that investment in CA implementation results in positive incremental benefit if the advantages of CA are monetized.
Alim Pulatov, Dušan Húska, Davran Abdullaev and Darya Hirsch
Nowadays science applies agricultural innovations in a wide range all over the world; however, number of water users in innovations is in smaller amounts. This might happen to a number of factors, for example lack of adequate knowledge exchange system, nominal extension services at places, lack of well-defined policies, barriers in ‘human’ minds change’, barriers at policy level. As for Uzbekistan, it could be said that practice of extension of innovations application and its diffusion in agricultural irrigation sector in Uzbekistan does not have much experience, however, before 1991 Uzbekistan was one of the Soviet Unions’ republics and as it is known, the Soviet Union had high practice in innovations in different sectors, as well as in agriculture. Although, since independence, Uzbekistan has continued to experience innovations in agricultural sector independently, their diffusion is at a challenging shape. This article captures the policy issue, how Uzbekistan started to develop water management issues in its economic reforms, it describes a case research on application of innovative technique on a farm level and accordingly, it tries to propose the aspects that need to be involved in future reforms to make the current situation be better managed.
Zafarjon Jabbarov, Tokhtasin Abdrakhmanov, Alim Pulatov, Peter Kováčik and Khabibullo Pirmatov
The oil well drilling and oil processing industries are globally the main contaminants of environmental condition caused by human economic activities. Oil spills have a negative impact on the environment, economy, and society. In this research, the effects of oil with different chemical contents on soil types formed in two soil-climatic conditions have been studied. The purpose of this research is to study the change of soil properties by oil pollution. The experiments have been conducted in irrigated and non-irrigated soils of the desert region of the Kashkadarya and Surkhandarya (Uzbekistan). The results have shown that aggregates (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 5; 7; 10 mm) which are the important of soil fertility have changed by oil and oil production, and the changes have proven to be temporary. The effect of the 5% and 15% concentrations of oil, engine oil, petrol, kerosene has been studied. The aggregates 0.25 mm and 0.5 mm have the biggest change among aggregates, in fact, aggregates of 0.25 mm at the level of 5% of oil decreased by 27.02%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 99.8%, at the level of 5% of kerosene decreased by 2%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 98.1%. Aggregates of 0.5 mm at the level of 5% of oil decreased by 6.44%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 67.14%, at the level of 5% of kerosene decreased by 12.75%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 92.8%. Engine oil and Petrol at levels 5 and 15 have relatively rare changed. Also, as a result of oil and oil pollution, the total carbon dioxide in the soil has grown briefly, which is an anthropogenic carbon and insignificant for soil fertility and humus. As a result, an anthropogenic carbon increased in gray-brown soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) at 0 – 35 cm layer by 0.22%, irrigated meadow-alluvial soil (Fluvisols, WRB) by 0.31%, irrigated gray-brown soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) by 0.44%, irrigated Takyr-meadow soil (Calsisols, WRB) by 0.25%, Takyr soil (Calsisols, WRB) by 0.32%, sandy Desert soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) by 0.21%.