In this paper we discuss the alienability splits in two Mainland Scandinavian languages, Swedish and Danish, in a diachronic context. Although it is not universally acknowledged that such splits exist in modern Scandinavian languages, many nouns typically included in inalienable structures such as kinship terms, body part nouns and nouns describing culturally important items show different behaviour from those considered alienable. The differences involve the use of (reflexive) possessive pronouns vs. the definite article, which differentiates the Scandinavian languages from e.g. English. As the definite article is a relatively new arrival in the Scandinavian languages, we look at when the modern pattern could have evolved by a close examination of possessive structures with potential inalienables in Old Swedish and Old Danish. Our results reveal that to begin with, inalienables are usually bare nouns and come to be marked with the definite article in the course of its grammaticalization.
Radosław Dobrowolski, Irena Pidek, Witold Alexandrowicz, Stanisław Hałas, Anna Pazdur, Natalia Piotrowska, Alicja Buczek, Danuta Urban and Jerzy Melke
The paper presents the results of interdisciplinary (multiproxy) palaeoenvironmental studies of peat — calcareous tufa depositional sequences of spring mire from Radzików site (east Poland). Analyses of three biotic proxies (plant macrofossils, pollen, molluscs) were supplemented with sedimentological, geochemical, oxygen and carbon stable isotopes analyses and radiocarbon dating and used for reconstruction of environmental changes in Late Glacial and Holocene. The obtained results enable us to (1) reconstruct main phases of mire development and (2) determine environmental factors influencing changes of water supply.
The object started to develop in Allerød. The Late Glacial and Early Holocene deposit sequence is relatively thick (about 1.0 m), with good palaeoecological record. The boundary between Younger Dryas and Preboreal is especially well confirmed by palynological and malacological analyses as well as radiocarbon dating. The Mesoholocene deposits are considerably worse preserved. Mire development was evaluated in terms of general mire ecology.