Optical phantoms are widely used for evaluating the performance of biomedical optical modalities, and hence, absorbing and scattering materials are required for the construction of optical phantoms. Towards that aim, new readily available and inexpensive black Ink (Parker) as a simulating absorber as well as Intralipid 20% as a simulating scatterer are thoroughly investigated. Broadband Transmittance and Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements were performed in the visible range 400 – 700 nm. Optical properties of the phantom materials are determined. Analytical expressions for absorption and scattering coefficient related to the concentrations and wavelength of the Parker ink and Intralipid are also presented and discussed. The results show nonlinear trend in the absorption coefficient of Parker ink over the examined visible spectral range. Furthermore, Intralipid scattering coefficient variation across the mentioned spectral range shows a tissue-like scattering trend. The findings demonstrate the capability of the broadband transmission and diffuse reflectance for characterizing tissue-like phantom materials in the examined spectral range.
Behrooz Hashemi-Domeneh, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Mitra Rahimi, Shahin Shadnia, Peyman Erfantalab and Ali Ostadi
The use of pesticides such as aluminium phosphide (AlP) has increased in the recent years and improved the quantity and quality of agricultural products in a number of developing countries. The downside is that AlP causes severe chronic and acute health effects that have reached major proportions in countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh, and Jordan. Nearly 300,000 people die due to pesticide poisoning in the world every year. Poisoning with AlP accounts for many of these deaths. Unfortunately, at the same time, there is no standard treatment for it. The aim of this article is to give a brief review of AlP poisoning and propose a treatment flowchart based on the knowledge gained so far. For this purpose we reviewed all articles on the management of AlP poisoning published from 2000 till now. Using a modified Delphi design, we have designed a handy flowchart that could be used as a guide for AlP poisoning management of patients in emergency centres.