Empirical studies have shown that changes in levels of education explain a significant part of changes in income between countries. Many causes and phenomena can affect income. In this there is a “reverse causal link” that exists between the two sizes (countries with a higher GDP offer better educational services). Cuts to education certainly contribute to reducing the numerator of the two “cursed relations” - between deficit and GDP and between debt and GDP. Too often we forget that improving the educational and university system is an investment that in the long term can contribute to the increase of the denominator of these relationships, the GDP, making public finance more sustainable. Investing in the education system and in University is good for the economy, even for the transport sector, of course.
This is a work between a very short introduction and handbook to understand what diplomacy is and to study it. The author introduces diplomacy to start form historical perspective and to provide significant examples to illustrate the art of diplomacy in action. Diplomacy has evolved greatly, coming to mean diverse things, to different persons, at several time, reaching from the sophisticated to inelegant and ordinary. this paper presents the first attempts to measure student learning quantitatively by administering a pre-test, post-test survey supplemented by a glossary of diplomatic terms.
This wants to be a contribution for those who want to understand the Bologna process, intergovernmental cooperation of 48 European countries in the field of higher education. The Bologna process guides the collective effort of public authorities, universities, teachers, and students, together with stakeholder associations, employers, quality assurance agencies, international organisations, and institutions, including the European Commission, on how to improve the internationalisation of higher education, a project that is at the base of the modernization of the European educational system and well beyond.
Nowadays, Iranian foreign policy is developing following a defensive line along three axes: nuclear energy, respect of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Peace in the Middle East. This paper analyzes the strategical role of Iran in reaction to the new Trump policies. There is international apprehension about the issue of nuclear weapons, a matter that reflects an alarming situation that could lead to the opening of a new war front.
“Ostalgie” is coming from a German word referring to nostalgia for aspects of life in East Germany, and not only. It is a new multipurpose and new expression related the German terms “Nostalgie” (nostalgia in Italian) and Ost (East). Its anglicised equivalent, ostalgia, it is rhyming with “nostalgia” and it is also sometimes used. The collapse of Soviet Union and the Berlin Wall destruction, was the concept protected concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from ‘61 to ’89, It especially divided West and East European countries, the wall cut off West Berlin from almost all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989. Formally its demolition began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992 and coincides in some generation from the Warsaw Pact countries, legally the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation with the “Mutual Assistance” URSS of the birth of “ostalgie”, that it goes against with modern principle of multicultural society and globalisation of the world. At the eighth congress of the communist party Lenin recognized the right to self-determination of the populations of the empire and promised them significant concessions, although its final intent was to reach the true dictatorship of the proletariat which would have rendered the ethnic-national distinctions useless. The Soviet Union became the incubator of new nations with the dissolving of the Russian nation in the Soviet state. Does the “ostalgie” refer to the USSR, is this compatible with multiculturalism? Is it compatible with that plurality of tending different cultures that coexists in mutual respect and which implies the preservation of their specific traits by rejecting any type of homologation or fusion in the dominant culture?
Thanks to the tumultuous development of digital technologies, nowadays we live in a world without boundaries, characterized by liquid communities that meet and collide, sometimes denying mutual recognition. We move in a communicative bulimia where information runs like in a circus where the sense and the value of ‘communicating’ are often lost, fuelling forms of misunderstanding, violence and exclusion that contribute to fuel discomfort and isolation. In the information and knowledge society, communication is increasingly discriminating for emancipation and empowerment of people, organizations, and communities. For this reason, in this essay, we intend to deepen both the evolution of the community’s space through digital technologies and the value and role of the concept of empowerment applied to community development. The essence of the essay is to reflect on its social implications in terms of welfare communities and valorization of the heritage of relational goods that are constitutive of every social and community space.