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Open access

Alena Pechová and Andrea Nečasová

Abstract

Ketosis is still an important problem which must be solved in dairy herds. Early precise diagnosis and proper evaluation of the cause of the disease is essential for good management of ketosis on dairy farms. The aim of our work was to analyse the occurrence of rumen dysfunction in connection with subclinical ketosis in dairy herds and to evaluate the relationships between beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and metabolic parameters in blood, urine and rumen fluid. We analysed the results of metabolic profile tests performed in dairy cattle herds from 1,338 cows. The concentration of BHB significantly correlated with glucose, NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids), bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (γ-glutamyl transferase), urea, magnesium and calcium in blood serum and with following parameters of rumen fluid – acetate, propionate, butyrate, acetate/propionate and infusoria. Significant but weak correlations were found between BHB and urine parameters (pH, specific gravity, potassium, magnesium, chloride). Subclinical ruminal acidosis was found in 23.1% and 16.7% of dairy cows with light (BHB 1.2–2 mmol/L) and more severe subclinical ketosis (BHB >2 mmol/L) and simple ruminal indigestion in 16.7% and 30%, respectively. On the basis of performed analysis we can conclude that rumen dysfunction is an important factor for the development of ketosis. Veterinary practitioners should suggest checking the feeding management in their diagnostic work with the aim to distinguish primary and secondary ketosis. Only complex and precise diagnostic work allows applying correct and successful therapy not only for individual animals but also for herd health management.

Open access

Robert Bodor, Andrea Nečasová, Alena Pechová and Marián Masár

Abstract

A capillary isotachophoresis (CITP) method performed in a column-coupling apparatus has been developed for the simultaneous determination of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) concentrations in blood samples. The determination of GSSG and GSH concentrations in biological samples is important because of their roles in oxidative stress. Different concentrations of a leading ion in the coupled columns (concentration cascade) and a large volume (37 µ ) of the injected sample facilitated a GSSG concentration of between 2 and 25 µmol/l. A reaction between iodoacetate and GSH under alkaline conditions was used to prepare the sample in order to avoid oxidation of GSH to GSSG. This step eliminated the main source of systematic errors with regard to the determination of the GSSG concentration. A linear relationship (R2=0.9969) between the zone length of S-(carboxymethyl)glutathione (the product of the reaction between GSH and iodoacetate) and the concentration of GSH (40-120 µmol/l) was obtained. The method was applied to the analysis of bovine blood samples that had been diluted by a factor of ten with satisfactory results