Capsule Enteroscopy (CE) is a fundamentally new method in diagnostic endoscopy. However, there are several factors influencing the quality of this procedure, including impermeable fluids, food remains etc. The aim of the study was to assess one of the most popular currently used bowel preparation methods and evaluate possible effects of various factors. 136 CE examinations were analysed. Each patient was prepared using 2 litres of polyethylene glycol (PEG) one day prior to examination. There was a special form filled in for each patient, which included relevant parameters (anamnesis, CE data etc.). Of 136 CE cases, 84 (61.8%) were female patients and 52 (38.2%) were male. The small bowel (SB) transit time in 112 patients varied from 39 to 502 minutes, but in 24 cases the capsule did not reach caecum. The degree of bowel cleanliness was as follows: very good — 30 (22.1%) patients, satisfactory — 97 (71.3%), and poor — 9 (6.6%). A positive correlation was observed between the degree of SB cleanliness and the SB transit time (p = 0.015). A longer SB transits time was associated with poor SB cleanliness. The results obtained in this study showed that the quality of SB cleanliness is affected by SB transit time. A relatively large percentage of cases rated as satisfactory bowel cleanliness and comparatively small percentage of bowel cleanliness cases rated as “very good” were observed when 2 litres of PEG were used prior to CE, indicating an important issues in preparation of the bowel prior to CE.
There are about 2 billion people in the world who suffer from anaemia, mostly iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), by WHO data. Iron deficiency without anaemia is three times more common than IDA. In such patients, the condition of the small intestine should be evaluated, and malabsorption excluded. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential correlation between different types of enteropathy and iron absorption disturbances. The study was performed at the Latvian Maritime Medical Center “Gastroklinika” between the years 2014 and 2018. Iron absorption tests with 50 mg of oral iron gluconate were performed for each patient. Patients had filled in a FACIT questionnaire and had underwent video capsule endoscopy (VCE). A total of 48 patients were enrolled for analysis — 41 (85.4%) female and 7 (14.6%) male. Enteropathy was diagnosed in 35 cases: erosive — 17, erythematous — 12 and congestive — 6. By the time of VCE, 24 patients were suffering from anaemia. A total of 33 (68.7%) patients had problems with iron absorption, of whom 8 had no signs of enteropathy and 25 were diagnosed with enteropathy during VCE. IDA did not show a statistically significant correlation with enteropathy. However, the obtained results suggest that this should be studied further in association with small intestine malabsorption, to determine the precise role of enteropathy in IDA patients.
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between HLA Class II alleles in two groups of patients in Latvia: patients with cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. The study included 37 patients from the Rīga East Clinical University Hospital with echinococcosis (29 patients with cystic echinococcosis and eight patients with alveolar echinococcosis) and 100 healthy control persons without echinococcosis. HLA Class II allele genotyping was performed using Real-time polymerase chain reaction–sequence specific primer (RT-PCR-SSP). The odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), were calculated using statistical analysis performed with IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0, to evaluate the risk of developing the disease in an individual having a particular HLA genotype. In the case of cystic echinococcosis a more severe course of a disease can be anticipated in the presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles *17:01 and *07:01, -DQB1 *03:02, and *03:01, -DQA1*04:01 and haplotypes HLA-DRB1*04:01/-DQB1*03:01/ -DQA1*03:01, HLADRB1*11:01/ -DQB1*03:01 /-DQA1*05:01. However, in the group with alveolar echinococcosis it was associated with the HLA-DRB1 alleles *17:01 and *07:01, -DQB1 *05:01 and haplotypes HLA- DRB1*17:01/-DQB1*02:01-2/-DQA1*01:01, HLA-DRB1*11:01/ -DQB1*03:01/-DQA1*01:03 and HLA-DRB1*11:01/-DQB1*03:01/-DQA1*03:01. HLADRB1*15:01/-DQÂ1*06:02-8/-DQA1*05:01 and HLA-DRB1*13:01/-DQB1*02:01-2/-DQA1*05:01 haplotypes were protective in all patient groups. The limitations of this exploratory study indicate that a broader study needs to be conducted for revealing specific risk and protective HLA Class II haplotypes for patients with cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Latvia.
We reviewed medical records of cases of liver abscesses (LA) registered in Rīga East University Hospital clinical centre “Gaiïezers” from January 2012 to October 2018 to assess sociodemo-graphic factors, clinical, laboratory, microbiological and radiological findings, as well as therapeutic modalities and their efficacy associated with LA. A total of 95, including five recurrent, cases were included in this study. No statistically significant differences in gender distribution were found. Mean patient’s age was 64.5 ± 15.9. The most common documented risk factors for the development of LA were underlying biliary tract abnormalities (37.9% of cases), and diabetes mellitus (12.7%), while in 21.1% of cases, LA were defined as cryptogenic. Most patients presented with fever (70.5%); right upper abdominal pain was reported in 61.1%, while vomiting and / or nausea — in 25.3% of cases. The most common isolates identified from LA were Klebsiella pneumonia (40.3% of cases), mainly in monomicrobial LA, and Escherichia coli (22.6% of cases), predominantly in polymicrobial LA. Ceftriaxone and metronidazole intravenous formulations were used in 35.5% cases as the principal antimicrobial combination at hospital. Median overall expected duration of antimicrobial treatment was 15 days. LA drainage was performed in 87.4% of cases for the median duration of seven days. In 86.3% of cases both approaches were combined.
For many years, there has been a concern that inflammatory bowel disease carries an increased lymphoma risk. At the same time, patients with intestinal lymphomas are occasionally misdiag-nosed as having Crohn’s disease. We report a case of T-cell lymphoma of the bowel misdiag-nosed as Crohn’s disease, which illustrates the diagnostic challenges posed by peripheral extranodal lymphomas. A 68-year old female presented with clinical symptoms (diarrhoea, abdominal pain, poor appetite and significant weight loss), and colonoscopic and initial histological findings that were similar to inflammatory bowel disease. She was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease and received treatment with sulfasalazine with subsequent improvement of symptoms. Eight months after the initial diagnosis the patient experienced sudden abdominal pain. Laparotomy revealed necrosis in the small and large intestine and ileostomy was performed. On day 10 of a complicated postoperative period the patient died. Post-mortem histopathological examination of small and large intestine revealed highly malignant peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. Differentiation of intestinal T-cell lymphoma from Crohn’s disease continues to be a challenge, because clinical, colonoscopic, radiological and histopathological findings can mimic Crohn’s disease. Careful multi-disciplinary assessment and knowledge of this rare disorder is crucial for timely diagnosis.
The article discusses the possible relationships between intestinal microbiota and the therapeutic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal microbiota may be involved in 5-ASA enzymatic biotransformation, but the metabolism of drugs by the intestinal microbiota has been studied in less detail, and little is known about the relationships between anti-inflammatory efficacy of 5-ASA with bacterial viability, quantity and activity. It remains unclear whether 5-ASA affects the microbiota depending on the different segments of gastrointestinal tract. Drugs and diet can both improve and worsen the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, it is not known whether drugs affect the intestinal microbiota regardless of diet. Further research is needed to answer these questions.
Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of chronic liver diseases. The current gold standard for diagnosing this condition, liver biopsy, has too many drawbacks, and research for better alternatives is ongoing. One major diagnostic arsenal includes various serological composition scores or so-called formulas. They are constantly being validated for development of new formulas. In our retrospective study of 215 patients case files who had confirmed cirrhosis of various etiologies, we examined the sensitivity and set new cut-offs for five of the most well-documented formulas. Data was obtained from the Rīga East University Hospital from 2012 to 2017 and analysed using SPSS V.22.00. In our study we found that FIB-4 at cut-off > 1.45 had over 95% sensitivity for excluding advanced fibrosis regardless of cirrhosis etiology. None of evaluated formulas had high sensitivity for detecting cirrhosis of alcohol etiology. For the viral hepatitis C genesis group, the best choice was deRitis index with almost 90% sensitivity. FIB-4 at cut-off > 2.75 was the best choice for the combined alcohol and viral hepatitis C group; BONACINI at score 8+ and FIB-4 at > 3.25 were the most sensitive in the main group containing all patients irrespective of cirrhosis etiology.
Esophageal stenting is used in patients with malignant esophageal tumours to reduce dysphagia and inanition. The objective of this study was to analyse the main reasons for esophageal stenting in Rīga East Clinical University Hospital (RECUH) and their association with dysphagia and mortality. A cross-sectional study of all patients hospitalised in RECUH who received esophageal self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) from October 2013 to December 2015 was performed. A total of 29 patients, 24 (82.8%) male and 5 (17.2%) female, with mean age 63.7 ± 11.3 years, underwent the procedure. The most common indications for stenting were tumour-related stenosis (52.9%) and fistulae (17.6%). Mean time from establishing the diagnosis of esophageal cancer to stent placement was 338.6 days. Median survival after stenting was 4.8 months. A complex case of a patient requiring placement of three palliative stents illustrates the challenges of esophageal cancer care. Esophageal stent placement is an effective palliative method for treating tumour-related symptoms but carries risks of stent complications and fistula development over time. SEMS are being successfully used in cancer patient treatment in Latvia.
Kefir is a fermented dairy product, created by fermentation of milk by bacteria and yeasts. Kefir is the most common traditional non-sweetened fermented dairy beverage in the Baltic countries. Whole kefir and specific fractions and individual organisms isolated from kefir provide a multitude of health benefits, including regulation of composition of the gut microbiome. This review aims to summarise the available data about influence of kefir consumption on the gut microbiome in healthy individuals and to highlight the effects that kefir consumption as well as separated fractions of kefir can have in disease states via modulation of the host microbiome.