In the paper the risks to which the patient is exposed while receiving a medical service have been analyzed. All treatments related to blood collection from the patient deserve much attention. It consists of a number of principles and procedures regarding the patient's health safety as well as safety of a person providing this service. Prevention and preventive actions in the aspect of patient safety in the face of threats resulting from the nature of medical services provided are a priority. Due to preventive action it is possible to avoid the effects of exposure to biological hazards, including the possibility of becoming infected with HIV, HCV and HBV. In the paper the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in selected blood stations of the Śląskie Voivodeship have been presented. The questionnaire is able to collect the information about patient awareness on the risks of the medical service (blood collection).
Zinc is one of the most important microelements that can be found in the human organism. It is a component or an activator of various enzymes and takes part in more than 300 enzymatic reactions. It is present in all types of human tissue. About 90% of the general amount of zinc can be found in bones and muscles, 11% in liver and skin. Zn2+ ions are stable ions in biological environment and they do not participate in redox reactions that occur inside an organism. Assimilability of this element by living organisms is varied. It depends largely on the sort of food and interactions occurring between zinc and other elements. Zinc is an essential element for normal development and maintenance of human health.
The data presented in this article result from an overview of studies presented in literature published in the last five years concerning zinc transport mechanisms, the role of zinc in functioning of the human body, and also pathophysiological states caused by too low or excessive concentration of zinc in an organism.
Eutrophication of waters and climate warming have created in the last decades favourable conditions for cyanobacteria colonization. The presence of cyanobacteria toxins in heavily polluted lake waters and fish ponds has become a current problem. These toxins belong to cyanobacteria secondary metabolites and are active in various fields of harmfulness to animals and humans. This group includes neurotoxins, dermatotoxins and hepatotoxins having a destructive influence on liver's cells. The group of hepatotoxins comprises microcystins and nodularin. The symptoms of hepatotoxin poisoning include stomach, intestine and liver disorders, intra-liver bleeding and physiological insufficiency of this organ.
These compounds can induce apoptosis of liver cells and tumor promoters. From the above facts, it follows that hepatotox-ins can pose a very serious health problem on a global scale. This work presents the characteristic of cyanobacterial hepato-toxins, their chemical structure, properties, and mechanism of their action on human organism. The harmful influence caused by consuming products used in diet supplements, which contain microcystins was also pointed out.