The sewerage network in Poland, built in the early 20th century, has been losing its original water-tightness and flow capacity. To bring these characteristics back, rehabilitation works are performed. The initial capacity of sewers can be restored without affecting the urban environment thanks to the trenchless technology. The sewer subjected to rehabilitation receives a new internal leakproof layer capable of preventing groundwater infiltration as well as sewage leaks, which can contaminate the environment. This paper intends to compare the trenchless technology with traditional open cut trench excavation. In the study, two variants of trenchless rehabilitation were considered: one performed with the help of GRP panels and the other using cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining. Flow velocities and flow rates in the sewers before and after rehabilitation were compared. Also, selected economic and environmental aspects of sewer rehabilitation methods were examined.
Wioleta Hynder, Małgorzata Piskorz-Szymendera, Aleksandra Zielińska, Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman, Agnieszka Dymek-Skoczyńska and Agnieszka Ulatowska
Introduction.Diagnosis of infertility usually begins after a year of waiting for pregnancy without any effect. Although it is usually woman who first reports to the doctor, the diagnostic tests should be conducted simultaneously with a woman and a man.
Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic tests performed in women seeking an offspring.
Material and methods. The survey was conducted from February to April 2014 in the gynaecological wards of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinical Hospital of the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. The study included 104 patients during diagnosis and treatment of infertility. The research tool was the author's questionnaire.
Results. The largest group comprised of women aged from 31 to 35 years (44%), the least numerous group – of women under 25 years of age (1%). The most commonly proposed trial was a detailed obstetric interview together with the general one (64%), then gynaecological examination (36%) and transvaginal ultrasound (30%). In 96% of the respondents diagnostic tests included conducted medical history, as well as physical gynaecological and ultrasound examination. Diagnostic methods, like hormonal profile, assessment of ovulation, laboratory tests were performed in 70% of patients. The survey also included questions concerning the diagnostic methods used in the partners of the respondents. In 35% of men one diagnostic test was performed, in 34% two tests and in more than 10% – 4 tests.
Conclusion. Those who decide for the diagnosis of infertility are usually couples aged from 26 to 30 who do not an have offspring. Medical history, physical examination, gynaecological ultrasound and hormonal profile are the most commonly performed diagnostic tests for women applying for posterity.