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  • Author: Aleksandra Vranic x
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Redox Status in Women with Rheumathoid Arthritis

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess oxidative status and to set baseline characteristics for female population with established rheumatoid arthritis. Total of 42 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 48 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the study. Clinical examination was performed and assessed disease activity. Peripheral blood samples were used for all the assays. The markers of oxidative stress were assessed, including plasma levels of index of lipid peroxidation - thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion radical, nitrites and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione levels as antioxidant parameters. In the patients group, levels of hydrogen peroxide and index of lipid peroxidation were higher than in controls. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity compared to healthy subjects. Interestingly, controls had higher levels of nitrites compared to patients. Patients showed a marked increase in reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation as well as decrease in the activity of antioxidant defense system leading to oxidative stress which may contribute to tissue and cartilage damage and hence to the chronicity of the disease.

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The Effects of Valsartan on Cardiac Function and Pro-Oxidative Parameters in the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Heart

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, while cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system controls renal, cardiovascular, adrenal function and regulates fluid and electrolyte balance as well as blood pressure. Because of his role, inhibition of reninangiotensin- aldosteron system is another therapy approach that reduces the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this study, our goal was to evaluate effect of valsartan,as inhibitor of angiotensin II receptor type 1, on cardiac tissue and function, with focus on cardiodynamic and oxidative stress. The present study was carried out on 20 adult male Wistar albino rats (8 week old and with body masses of 180- 200 g). Rats were divided randomly into 2 groups (10 animals per group). Healthy animals treated with 1 μM of valsartan and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals perfused with 1 μM of valsartan 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Our results demonstrated that acute application of valsartan has different effect on cardiodynamics in rat heart of diabetic and healthy animals but did not improve cardiac function in hyperglycemia- induced changes. A challenge for further investigations are studies with chronic or acute administration, alone or in combination with other angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in various models of diabetes.

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Analysis Of Clinical, Haematological And Biochemical Parameters In Patients With Infectious Mononucleosis

Abstract

Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) usually occurs in early childhood and often does not present clinical symptoms. More than 90% of adults are infected with this virus. A primary infection that occurs in adolescence or adulthood is usually clinically presented as infectious mononucleosis with a triad of symptoms: fever, lymphadenopathy and pharyngitis. Our retrospective study included 51 patients with a median age of 17 (9-23) years and serologically confirmed infectious mononucleosis. All patients with infectious mononucleosis were treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases at the Clinical Center in Kragujevac during 2013. We analysed the clinical, haematological and laboratory parameters of patients. The aspartate-aminotransferase levels were increased in 40 patients, with a mean value of 116.24 (±93.22); the alanine-aminotransferase levels were increased in 44 patients, with a mean value of 189.24 (±196.69). Lymphadenopathy was the most common clinical feature upon admission in 49 patients (96%); 38 patients (74.5%) had splenomegaly, and 20 (39%) had hepatomegaly. Twenty-six patients (51%) had leukocytosis with lymphocytosis, while 15 (75%) of the 20 who had a normal leukocyte count also had lymphocytosis. In the present study, we updated the clinical, haematological and laboratory parameters, which may lead to the establishment of an accurate diagnosis and promote further treatment of the patients.

Open access
Effects Of The Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren On Oxidative Stress In Isolated Rat Heart

Abstract

Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a significant role in the development and progression of various cardio-metabolic diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and heart failure. Aliskiren is the newest antihypertensive drug and the first orally active direct renin inhibitor to become available for clinical use. This study investigated the acute and direct effects of Aliskiren on different parameters of oxidative stress on isolated rat heart. The hearts of male Wistar albino rats (n = 24, 8 per experimental group, age 8 weeks, body mass 180–200 g), were excised and retrogradely perfused according to the Langendorfftechnique at a gradually increasing perfusion pressure (40-120 cmH2O). Markers of oxidative stress (NO2 , TBARS, H2O2 and O2 ) were measured spectrophotometrically after perfusion with three different concentrations of Aliskiren (0.1 μM, 1 μM, and 10 μM). The results demonstrated possible dose-dependent cardioprotective properties of Aliskiren, particularly with higher CPP. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels decreased with the highest dose of Aliskiren and higher CPP, and the same trend was observed in nitrite (NO2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. These findings indicate that the acute effects of Aliskiren do not likely promote the production of reactive oxygen species upon higher pressure with the highest dose. Aliskiren may exert beneficial effects on oxidative stress biomarkers.

Open access
Redox Status in Patients with Femoral Neck Fractures

Abstract

The femur transfers the body weight from the pelvic bone to the shinbone. Femur fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among the group of locomotor apparatus injuries, especially in the elderly population. Considering that oxidative stress occurs as a result of increased production of free radicals that damage cell function and cause numerous pathological conditions and diseases, the aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters in older patients with femoral neck fractures. This clinical study included 70 patients, of which 35 had femoral neck fractures (26 males and 9 females), while the other half of the patients formed the matched control group. Markers of oxidative stress (NO2 , TBARS, H2O2 and O2 -) and anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GSH) were measured. Results showed that the levels of O2 - increased, while levels of NO2 -, H2O2 and all the antioxidative enzymes decreased in patients with femoral neck fractures. These findings indicate that fractures cause oxidative stress, probably because of the reduced activity of osteoblasts and the increased activity of osteoclasts.

Open access
Effects of Provinols on Cardiodynamics and Coronary Flow in Islodated Rat Hearts

Abstract

Provinols are an alcohol-free extract of red wine that contains a wide range of polyphenols. Polyphenols are a group of chemical compounds found in diverse plants. Polyphenols are considered to protect against cardiovascular disease. Although some older epidemiological studies have indicated that the positive effects of red wine on heart disease can be attributed to the alcohol content alone, there is now powerful evidence that polyphenols present in red wine are responsible for these positive effects. The hearts of male Wistar albino rats (n = 36, 12 in each experimental group, 10 weeks old, body mass 250 ± 30 g) were excised and retrogradely perfused according to the Langendorff technique at a gradually increasing perfusion pressure (40-120 cmH2O). Parameters of cardiac function (dp/dt max, dp/dt min, SLVP, DLVP, HR, CF) were measured after perfusion with three different concentrations of provinols (5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml). Administration of the highest dose (50 μg/ml) induced a significant increase in dp/dt max, dp/dt min, HR and CF compared with control conditions at CPP = 40 cmH2O, while an intermediate dose increased dp/dt max at the same CPP. Generally viewed, the results of the present study suggest that provinols may have a beneficial effect on the intact myocardium and coronary circulation. These findings could constitute an important step in further investigation of these polyphenols under different representative experimental conditions in the heart, as well as providing a good basis for potential clinical studies in this field.

Open access