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  • Author: Aleksandra Lewandowska CDFMR x
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Abstract

Effective water and sewage management is one of the most important enablers of sustainable urban development. In Poland, water and sewage management has been undergoing systematic transformation since the 1990s. This process intensified with Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004. The aim of the work is to analyse and evaluate water and sewage management in cities in Poland in terms of sustainable development. This was made possible by selecting seven variables from which a summative index (SI) was calculated. The analysis revealed a number of positive changes that have occurred in this field. These were mainly: a decrease in water consumption in households and industry, and an increased share of wastewater treated biologically or using enhanced nutrient removal in total wastewater. An increase in SI was found in 98% of the researched cities. The largest improvement in water and sewage management took place in cities of populations below 100,000 and little industry, and in three large cities, namely Warsaw and Szczecin.

Abstract

The goal of the paper is to evaluate and analyse changes in selective municipal collection, recycling level, and recovery, of waste. The article indicates the Polish legislation currently in force to systematise the organisation of waste management systems. It presents the participation of selective waste collection in the total municipal waste at the voivodeship scale, as well as changes in the number of individually segregated fractions (i.e. categories of waste segregation) of selectively collected waste in Poland. Moreover, the levels of waste recycling and recovery were analysed for the country’s ten largest cities, while also showing that the cities implement accepted goals of municipal waste recovery. On the example of Warsaw, the structure of collected waste was discussed and attention was paid to the problem of quality of collected waste, which results in it being sent to sorting facilities.