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Open access

Ewa Gruszczyńska and Aleksandra Kroemeke

Coping after myocardial infarction. The mediational effects of positive and negative emotions

The aim of the study was to examine mediational effects of positive and negative emotions (PEs and NEs) on the relationship between cognitive appraisal and coping after myocardial infarction (MI). Subjects were 163 patients assessed a few days after their first MI episode for cognitive appraisal using the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire developed by Wrześniewski and based on the Lazarus theory. The participants' current emotional state and coping strategies were evaluated with Polish versions of the PANAS and CISS-S, respectively. The data were analyzed using the boostrapping procedure. Resultant models turned out to be similar for threat and loss appraisal, where PEs mediated task-oriented coping, while NEs were found to mediate emotion-oriented coping. A different relationship was found for challenge. Due to a significant intercorrelation among appraisals, mediational models for threat and loss were re-analyzed when controlling for challenge. Nevertheless, even if a situation is perceived as highly stressful, both positive and negative emotions can emerge, resulting in strategies that serve different functions to meet external and internal demands.

Open access

Kamilla Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Aleksandra Kroemeke and Katarzyna Polańska

Abstract Objectives

Study participants are 46 women (age 23.48 ± 4.88 years) with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (M-R-K-H) syndrome. Occurrence of the M-R-K-H syndrome is one in 4000-5000 female children. It was investigated (a) whether coping styles mediate the effect of neuroticism (N) on positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect, and (b) whether this mediation is moderated by the level of N as well as (c) whether this moderated mediation is moderated by length of awareness of illness. Methods: Neuroticism, coping style as well as positive and negative emotions were assessed using the Polish version of NOE-FFI, CISS and Scale of Emotional State. Results: Emotion coping style fully (for PA) or partly (for NA) mediated the relationship between neuroticism and emotions and these mediations were moderated by the level of N. Additionally, direct effect of neuroticism on NA was moderated by the time for which a patient has been aware of the disease. Conclusions: The level of neuroticism and the length of illness are important factors for the psychological functioning of women with M-R-K-H Syndrome. In women with medium and high neuroticism, (positive) effect of N on NA was indirect and also direct - but only in those who have been aware of the diagnosis for 6 years or more. Relations with positive emotions were different: the indirect effect (negative) was observed only in women with a moderate and low neuroticism.

Open access

Aleksandra Kroemeke and Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska


The paper investigates whether the changes in cognitive appraisal and coping strategies related to initiation of insulin treatment onset mediate the effect of temperament on changes in positivity ratio among diabetic patients. Temperament, cognitive appraisal, coping strategies and positivity ratio (ratio of positive to negative affect) were assessed among 278 patients: just before conversion to insulin therapy and then one month later. Mediation analysis indicated that endurance and briskness were directly connected to changes in positivity ratio, whilst the effect of perseveration on positivity ratio was indirect via changes in negative appraisal, emotion- and problem-focused coping. The results confirm the stressful nature of the initiation of insulin treatment, and the assumptions of Lazarus’ model of stress and regulative role of temperament.

Open access

Ewa Gruszczyńska, Zuzanna Kwissa-Gajewska and Aleksandra Kroemeke


The aim of the study was to explore heterogeneity of change in state affect following the introduction of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. State affect was assessed twice among 305 patients: just before the introduction of insulin therapy and at 1-month follow-up. Latent class growth modeling showed that negative affect (NA) increased in 78% of the sample, whereas positive affect (PA) improved in only 17% of the participants. On the basis of cross-tabulation of these changes a 4-class model of emotional response to the new treatment was obtained. The largest subgroup of participants (57%) manifested “threat response”, i.e. moderate-stable PA with increase in NA. Participants in the “challenge response” subgroup (11.8%) showed increases in both NA and PA. The third class (10.2%) characterized by “no response”, had low-stable NA and moderate-stable PA. The smallest “stress response” subgroup (9.8%) showed increase in NA and high-stable PA. Gender, age and education level were significant covariates of group membership. Thus, the findings revealed heterogeneous emotional response to the new treatment, which may be of clinical relevance for improving diabetic patients’ adjustment through a more individual, person-centered approach.

Open access

Barbara Kłapcińska, Aleksandra Kroemeke, Magdalena Tataruch, Rafał Tataruch, Izabela Szołtysek-Bołdys, Jarosław Derejczyk, Elżbieta Kimsa and Janusz Iskra

Effects of Long-term Regular Exercise on Cognitive Function, Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Biomarkers in Middle-aged Men

Several studies on exercise and its effect on cognitive function in human and animal populations have documented the beneficial impact of regular physical activity on maintenance of good cognitive abilities and satisfactory health-related quality of life well into older age. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of long-term regular running on metabolic profile and cognitive function in middle-aged men.

A total of 24 regularly exercising, middle-age men (Group A), all being members of the Runners Club, and 22 age-matched sedentary subjects (Group B), as the control group, were enrolled in this study. The control group included 8 non-overweight (BMI=23.5±5.2) individuals (Group C) and 14 overweight/obese (BMI=30.7±1.6) subjects (Group D). Serum lipid profile, glucose and homocysteine concentrations were assessed by routine laboratory methods. Subjects' cognitive function was evaluated based on Trail Making Test (TMT) and Digit Symbol Test (DST) scores.

In a majority of runners (Group A), the BMI and the parameters of lipid profile (TC, HDL, LDL, TG, glycerol) were close to those recorded in non-overweight controls (Group C) and, in both groups, results were ideally within the reference ranges for healthy male subjects. However, as compared to the whole control group (Group B), which may be considered as an average population sample of sedentary middle-age men, significant differences were observed in BMI and concentrations of TC and LDL, as well as in the pro-atherogenic biomarkers (TC/HDL, LDL/HDL), which were lower in runners. A similar tendency was found in concentrations of TG (independent cardiovascular risk factor), glycerol and TG/HDL ratio (surrogate measure of insulin resistance), however the differences did not reach the level of significance. The level of homocysteine (pro-atherogenic biomarker) was comparable in all groups, and in most cases, within the reference range for male adults. Results of cognitive function tests did not reveal any significant between-group differences. The TMT score was found to be correlated positively (r=0.492, p<0.05), whereas DST score was correlated negatively (r=-0.549, p<0.005), with age. The DST performance, as evaluated in the group of runners (Group A), appeared to be strongly dependent (r=0.809, p<0.005) on the educational level of the subject.

These data provided evidence of beneficial effects of a long-term regular endurance running exercise on lipid profile and cardiovascular health in middle-aged men. However, we failed to confirm the findings of a favorable impact of regular physical activity on improvement in cognitive abilities.