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  • Author: Aleksandra Bošković x
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Background: Starting from the limitations of different single-method approaches to measuring the organizational efficiency, the paper is focused on covering both the financial and non-financial factors of this concept by combining two methods, namely the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).

Objectives: The main goal of the research in the paper is to show that certain deficiencies in the independent application of each method are eliminated by combining these methods.

Methods/Approach: The paper combines two methods, BSC and DEA, to measure the relative efficiency of all branches of a bank in Serbia.

Results: Results confirmed that the combined use of the named methods facilitates measurement of organizational efficiency by using both financial and non-financial indicators.

Conclusions: The paper shows that it is possible to achieve synergetic effects in the evaluation of organizational efficiency in the banking sector if BSC is applied first, to define goals within four perspectives, and then four DEA models are developed to measure efficiency in each perspective.


The interdependence of leader behaviour, leadership styles and interpersonal relations with followers suggests a need to investigate various aspects of leadership from the perspective of a follower, which is the main subject of the paper. The study aims to determine the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) in order to reach a conclusion on whether the perception of followers on the quality of LMX affects the leadership style and which style is the most commonly used. The empirical research was conducted in 2015, in the Republic of Serbia, on a sample of 100 respondents, employees in 12 organisations, using the survey method. The results show there is the highest positive correlation between high quality LMX and participatory leadership style. In the opinion of the followers, achievement-oriented style is the most common, regardless of the fact that there are high quality LMX in the majority of companies in the sample. The importance of research is in highlighting the role of followers in the process of organisational leadership, as active and equal participants. Practical contribution is reflected in giving guidance for leaders for more active involvement of followers in the decision making process and adapting leadership style to specific traits of followers and the situational circumstances. Studies of this type are not often in the local organisational theory and practice.