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Aleksandra Arsic, Ana Stojanovic and Milena Mikic

Abstract

Oleic acid has many beneficial effects on human health. One of the main dietary sources of oleic acid is olive oil. Non-Mediterranean European countries, including Serbia, have low habitual olive oil consumption, but other vegetable oils also contain different amounts of oleic acid. In infants and young children milk is the most important source of fatty acids, including oleic acid. Furthermore, fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids reflects dietary intake and fatty acid metabolism. In patients with serious chronic diseases fatty acid status is altered independently on the intake. Here we reviewed status of oleic acid in healthy persons as well as in patients with different chronic diseases in Serbia.

Open access

Kristina Radoman, Vesna Vucic, Aleksandra Arsic, Dejan Cubrilo, Nevena Jeremic, Jovana Jeremic and Vladimir Jakovljevic

Abstract

Considering the limited knowledge regarding the effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on the inflammatory response during physical activity, we aimed to evaluate the level of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in young soccer players before and after a maximal physical load test at the beginning and end of a two-month training process. The study included 75 young footballers from Football School “Kragujevac,” who were followed during the two-month training programme. The subjects were divided into the following groups: 1) control group (consumed a standard diet); 2) group that consumed fish oil (2500 mg of n-3 PUFAs per day); 3) group that consumed nutritional sunflower oil (2500 mg of n-6 PUFAs daily). The maximal progressive exercise test was performed using a treadmill belt. Venous blood samples were drawn 4 times for the determination of cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-α): before and after the exercise load test before the two-month training programme (initial measurement) and immediately before and after the exercise load test after the two-month training programme (control measurement). Supplementation with fish oil (n-3) has been associated with reduced levels of IL-6 compared with the initial values. After an acute bout of exercise, n-3 PUFAs did not show a significant effect on inflammatory marker dynamics, whereas n-6 PUFAs slightly stimulated the production of TNF-α.

Open access

Petrović Snježana, Arsić Aleksandra, Debeljak-Martačić Jasmina, Đurendić-Brenesel Maja, Pilija Vladimir, Milić Nataša and Popović Tamara

Abstract

The aim of our study was to stablish the possible alternations in fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in rats on a standard and high-fat diet supplemented with buckwheat leaf and flower mixture (BLF) and subsequent possible beneficial effects of BLF. Four months old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups fed a standard diet, standard diet supplemented with 5% BLF, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with full-period (13 weeks) of 5% BLF supplementation and high-fat diet with partial-period (7 weeks) of 5% BLF supplementation. Gas-liquid chromatography was performed to analyze the fatty acids in hexane lipid extracts of whole rat brains.

Supplementation with BLF did not induce significant changes in fatty acid composition of whole brain phospholipids in rats fed the standard diet. In rats on high-fat diet concomitant (full-period) BLF supplementation increased eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), total n-6 and n-6/n-3 ratio, and decreased the percentage of oleic acid (18:1n-9) and estimated activity of Δ-9 desaturase. When BLF application was postponed (partial-period) in the case of developed hyperlipidemia, a decrease of stearic acid (18:0) accompanied with an increased estimated Δ-9 desaturase activity was observed. Regardless of BLF supplementation all high-fat diet-fed groups showed an elevated percentage of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA) and a reduced estimated Δ-6 desaturase activity.

BLF contributes to the maintenance of stable fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids and supports normal brain function in high-fat diet rats, with more positive effects when BLF was applied before hyperlipidemia developed. This could be the mode of buckwheat health beneficial effects on the brain.

Open access

Marijana Kovačić, Dragana Marković, Irina Maslovarić, Sonja Obrenović, Jelica Grujić-Milanović, Aleksandra Arsić, Zorana Milanović, Olivera Savić, Natalija Fratrić and Vesna Ilić

Abstract

Calf bronchopneumonia is complex multifactorial disease and for its accurate diagnosis and therapy, besides clinical examination, microbiologic, hematologic and biochemical analyses could be necessary. In general, additional analyses are not implemented, mainly because the disease biomarkers are not defined.

To establish which analysis might be useful for determining the severity of the disease, we analyzed 23 three-month old calves with mild clinical signs of bronchopneumonia and 15 age-matched healthy calves. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from deep nasal swabs of diseased calves. Peripheral blood erythrocyte and leukocyte count of bronchopneumonic and healthy calves showed no difference. Serum proteins, lipoproteins and lipids were analyzed with spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis, non-reducing SDS-PAGE, gel zymography, and thin-layer chromatography. The bronchopneumonic calves had an increased level of circulating immune complexes and α globulins, which contain some of the positive acute phase proteins. In diseased calves the increased concentration of total γ globulins (IgG), due to an increased concentration of anionic γ globulins (predominately IgG1), was detected. The increased concentration of anionic γ globulins followed by increased concentration of transferrin (negative acute phase protein) and HDL cholesterol, decreased concentration of LDL-cholesterol, unchanged activity of matrix metalloproteases and leukocyte counts might reflect the obvious absence of generalized inflammation. A positive correlation was found between the acquired results and the appearance of mild clinical signs. Therefore, we believe that the parameters analyzed in the peripheral blood could be applied as reliable disease markers to distinguish between severe (inflammatory) and mild forms of calf bronchopneumonia and to predict a better outcome for these calves.