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  • Author: Aleksander Owczarek x
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Open access

Magdalena Babińska, Jerzy Chudek, Elżbieta Chełmecka, Małgorzata Janik, Katarzyna Klimek and Aleksander Owczarek

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of incorrect assessment of mortality risk factors in a group of patients affected by acute coronary syndrome, due to the lack of hazard proportionality in the Cox regression model. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and no age limit were enrolled. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. The proportional hazard assumptions were verified using Schoenfeld residuals, χ2 test and rank correlation coefficient t between residuals and time. In the total group of 150 patients, 33 (22.0%) deaths from any cause were registered in the follow-up time period of 64 months. The non-survivors were significantly older and had increased prevalence of diabetes and erythrocyturia, longer history of coronary artery disease, higher concentrations of serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and lower concentrations of serum sodium. No significant differences in echocardiography parameters were observed between groups. The following factors were risk of death factors and fulfilled the proportional hazard assumption in the univariable model: smoking, occurrence of diabetes and anaemia, duration of coronary artery disease, and abnormal serum concentrations of uric acid, sodium, homocysteine, cystatin C and NT-proBNP, while in the multivariable model, the risk of death factors were: smoking and elevated concentrations of homocysteine and NT-proBNP. The study has demonstrated that violation of the proportional hazard assumption in the Cox regression model may lead to creating a false model that does not include only time-independent predictive factors.

Open access

Marta Skowron, Jolanta Zalejska-Fiolka, Urszula Błaszczyk, Ewa Chwalińska, Aleksander Owczarek and Ewa Birkner

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the type and form of oil (raw/non-oxidised (N) or post-frying/oxidised (O)) consumed in high-fat diets affect the oxidative status of an organism, as observed by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as an oxidative factor and antioxidant enzyme activity.

Material and Methods: Fats in the diet came from rapeseed oil (R) and olive oil (O).

Results: The applied diet caused a decrease in MDA concentration (μmol/L) in serum in group RN from 2.94 ± 0.87 to 1.76 ± 0.13, in group ON from 2.45 ± 0.62 to 1.50 ± 0.10, and in group OO from 2.70 ± 1.16 to 1.84 ± 0.36. Meanwhile, MDA concentration (mmol/L) increased in blood haemolysate in group RO from 0.15 ± 0.07 to 0.22 ± 0.03 and in group OO from 0.17 ± 0.02 to 0.22 ± 0.02. The observed changes caused a response of the enzymatic antioxidant system in both models, especially followed by an increase in activities of total superoxide dismutase and its mitochondrial isoenzyme in all experimental groups, while its cytosolic isoenzyme activity increased only in ON and OO groups. Increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in groups RN and RO and of catalase (CAT) in groups ON and OO was observed. Significant differences in responses to the different types and forms of oils were probably caused by the different oxidative stability of the studied oils.

Conclusion: This diet disturbed the body’s oxidative status; however, during the six-month study the enzymatic antioxidant system remained effective.