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  • Author: Aleksander Kośko x
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Abstract

This study explores a Subcarpathian assemblage of Corded Ware funeral materials as evidence obtained over the last decade, with a focus on their research value for studies of the transmission of civilization models embraced by Final Eneolithic/Early Bronze communities settling the border zone between eastern and western Europe. Results of studies on the correspondence among ceremonial traditions that existed in the area between the Dnieper and the Vistula in the third millennium BC are presented, with two stages of adaptation of Black Sea or ‘barrow’ thanatological belief systems by Corded Ware groups in Lesser Poland being highlighted. Chronometric determinations relating to the development of ceremonial centres of the Rzeszów Foothills (Szczytna) and Lower San Valley (Święte) in the context of ‘western intrusions’ of late Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures are considered significant, providing the date range of ca. 2550-2400 BC.

Abstract

The paper presents excavation results and analytical studies concerning the taxonomic classification of a funerary site identified with the communities of the early ‘barrow cultures’ settling the north-western Black Sea Coast in the 4th/3rd-2nd millennium BC. The study focuses on the ceremonial centres of the Eneolithic, Yamnaya, Catacomb and Babyno cultures.

Abstract

The article presents the present state of research on the general issue of the Dniester Region of cultural contacts between communities settling the Baltic and Pontic drainage basins. Some five domains of research shall be brought to discussion in which it is possible to see fresh opportunities for archaeological study, on the basis of ‘Yampil studies’ on Dniester-Podolia (forest-steppe) barrow-culture ceremonial centres from the latter half of the 4th millennium and first half of the 3rd millennium BC. This relates to the peoples of the Eneolithic and the Early Bronze Age. In terms of topogenesis, embracing the Pontic-Tripolye, Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures, as well as Globular Amphora and Corded Ware in central prehistoric Europe.

Abstract

The paper presents excavation results and analytical studies concerning the taxonomic classification of a funerary site identified with the communities of the ‘barrow cultures’ settling the north-western Black Sea Coast in the first half of the 3rd and the middle of the 2nd millennia BC. The study focuses on the ceremonial centres of the Eneolithic communities of the Babyno and Noua cultures.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of excavations and analytical studies regarding the taxonomic classification of a unique funeral site associated with the societies of early ‘barrow cultures’ of the north-western Black Sea Coast in the 4th-3rd millennium BC. The study discusses the ceremonial centres of the Tripolye culture-Gordineşti group, as well as Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures.

Abstract

The paper discusses the 2010-2015 studies of the radiocarbon chronology of Podolia ‘barrow cultures’ on the left bank of the middle Dniester. The studies have relied on series of 14C dates for the Klembivka 1, Pidlisivka 1, Porohy 3A and Prydnistryanske 1 sites determined in Kyiv and Poznań laboratories. They are the first attempt to construct a regional (‘Yampil’) radiocarbon scale for ‘Early Bronze’ funerary rites (4th/3rd-2nd millennium BC) as practised by barrow builders - the communities of the Tripolye and Yamnaya cultures - and the secondary barrow users - the designers of necropolises located on barrows - belonging to the Catacomb, Babyno and Noua cultures.

Abstract

This study discusses the issue of ‘animal deposits’ in funerary practices of early barrow communities settling the Black Sea steppe and forest-steppe in the 4rd/3nd-2nd millennium. The focus of analytical studies is directly on the Yampil Barrow Cemetery Complex situated along the left bank of the Dniester, between the Murafa and Markivka rivers, or what is the Yampil Region (Vinnitsa Oblast) now. The chorological system developed by N.Ya. Merpert in his “Yamnaya Cultural-Historical Area” places this area within the Southwestern Variant (between the Southern Bug and Danube rivers) as the Yampil (Podolia) territorial centre. From the perspective of the research programme exploring the ‘bio-cultural border land between the West and East of Europe’, the Yampil Barrow Cemetery Complex is of special scholarly interest because of its western most location on the Dniester route of exchange for cultural patterns developed by communities settling the drainage basins of the Black and Baltic seas. The investigations followed the excavations of 23 barrows between 1984 and 2014.

Abstract

A set of sources embodied by features 1149A and 1149B at Święte 11, Jarosław District, Podkarpackie Province, is one of a kind in Lesser Poland as it includes a vessel associated with steppe cultures of the Northwest Black Sea Coast. The vessel has been discovered in a stratigraphic context that is not fully clear. It probably constituted an offering (trizna) connected with the male burial identified in the niche grave underneath. The vessel appears to be linked to the late Yamnaya/early Catacomb horizon. Such chronological attribution is further supported by an absolute date of the 2nd half of the third millennium BC established for bones. The vessel sits alongside other finds that provide corroboration for connections the population of the younger Corded Ware phase in Lesser Poland had with eastern European regions.

Abstract

The paper presents δ13C and δ15N isotope content measurements in human bones from 16 graves, being part of the Yampil Barrow Complex. From the results, conclusions may be drawn about the diet of barrow builders and users. It was based on vegetable foodstuffs and characterised by a varied share of terrestrial animal meat, depending on the period. High δ13C values suggest a share of C4-type plants in the diet, possibly millet.

Abstract

The paper presents the results of excavations and analytical studies regarding the taxonomic classification of a funeral site associated with the societies of ‘barrow cultures’ of the north-western Black Sea Coast in the first half of the 3rd and the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. The study discusses the ceremonial centres of the Eneolithic, Yamnaya and Noua cultures.