In this paper, an econometric model of consumption in Bulgaria for the period 1997-2005 is constructed. The Error-Correction Model (ECM) approach is employed and long-run relationship between household consumption and income was found. The primary purpose of this empirical paper is to get a better understanding of the factors driving household consumption in Bulgaria and to estimate a consumption function to be used for medium-term forecasting. It is shown that all households behave in a Keynesian way, basing their consumption decisions on current income.
We introduce a pro-cyclical endogenous utilization rate of physical capital stock into a real business cycle model augmented with a government sector in detail. We calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999–2016). We investigate the quantitative importance of the endogenous depreciation rate and the capital utilization mechanism working through the use of energy for cyclical fluctuations in Bulgaria. In particular, a positive shock to energy prices in the model works like a negative technological shock. Allowing for variations in factor utilization and the presence of energy as a factor of production improves the model performance against data, and in addition this extended setup dominates the standard RBC model framework with constant depreciation and a fixed utilization rate of physical capital (e.g., Vasilev (2009)).