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  • Author: Aleksandar Ignjatović x
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Open access

Aleksandar Ignjatović, Živorad Marković, Slađana Stanković and Boban Janković

Abstract

Anti-doping programs need to preserve and promote what is essential in sport and that is sport spirit and achieving perfection through the development of its own natural talents, in order to raise awareness about the importance of fair play and creating an environment that supports the sport without doping. These programs should be directed to the athletes and young people by creating a positive and long-term impact on the choices they make. Thanks to games that are used for children in preschool and primary school age it is possible to efficiently and timely impact on the development character and virtues because it is incomparably more difficult to form character and moral values in already formed athletes than in childrens who are just getting to know the world of sport and everything what he is carries. Childrens need to be instilled the importance of physical exercise and the importance of participation in sport without prohibited resources and methods that roughly violate the ideal of fair play and on that way promote at childrens health, fairness and equality for all athletes. Fair play was created out of chivalry and gentlemanly in the middle ages where many reformers proposed sport and games with the aim of education and strengthening moral values in children. Teaching children the ideals of fair play in which the sport is based, and their continued involvement in sports activities with special accent on the pedagogical aspect leads to raising the awareness of moral values and ideals of sports chivalry. Developing awareness among children about fair play and anti-doping implies greater satisfaction with the results achieved in sports activities, which is a win at all costs and with the use of illegal resourses worthless, and victors would not be able to refer to with pride.

Open access

Vladimir Vukomanovic, Milovan Matovic, Aleksandar Djukic, Vesna Ignjatovic, Svetlana Djukic and Ivana Simic Vukomanovic

ABSTRACT

Disorders and morphological abnormalities aff ecting the adrenal gland, could lead to profound clinical consequences, owing to its biochemical structure-activity and morphological characteristics. Th e recent focus on theranostic approach has led to a need for tumors characterization and early diagnosis at the molecular level. Many radiotracers have been developed with specifi c imaging characteristics for the adrenal tumors, by exploiting diff erent physiological mechanisms of uptake and metabolism. Th e aim of present study is to provide a prospective confi rmation of 131I-MIBG and 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, for the evaluation of patients with known or suspected tumors of the adrenal region. Th e research is designed as a cross-sectional observational study of the clinical correlates and diagnostic accuracy of radionuclide-based imaging methods in relation to in vitro analysis, clinical manifestations and morphological characteristics of these tumors. Furthermore, the present study also evaluates the usefulness and the clinical impact of each radiopharmaceutical for the detection and management of tumors, and functional imaging modality as well. Visual scintigraphic appearance of an increased focal tracer uptake in the suspected tumor site revealed that 99mTc- HYNIC-TOC is highly sensitive and reliable tumor-seeking radiotracer for adrenal tumors, but does not distinguish between adenoma and pheochromocytoma, and the existence of hormone secreting adrenocortical tumor cells. However, 131IMIBG scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specifi c method only in diff erentiating catecholamine-secreting adrenal tumors. Clinical signifi cance of this research is in the accurate localization of adrenal tumors, and is of paramount importance for an algorithmic diagnostic approach and management, and provide the rationale to diff erent therapeutic possibilities.

Open access

Miodrag Kocić, Ivana Bojić, Marko Aleksandrović, Aleksandar Ignjatović and Dragan Radovanović

Summary

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an adapted basketball training program on the cardiorespiratory fitness and sport skills performance of adolescents with mental retardation (MR). Fifty adolescents with mild MR who participated in this study were divided in two groups. Experimental group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.7 ± 0.9 years) performed the adapted training program, four times per week during eight weeks. A control group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.9 ± 0.8 years) followed ordinary physical education classes and continued with their normal lifestyle. Exercise testing included the six-minute walk test (6MWT), monitoring of heart rate frequency and sport skills performance test battery.

Results showed a significant difference between groups pre- and post-treatment in 6MWT distance. The experimental group experienced a 10% increase in covered distance pre- to post-testing (p < 0.05), whereas controls had no significant changes in the same period. Conducted adapted training also resulted in significant improvement in examined sport skills performance. However, this kind and duration of experimental procedure did not result in significant differences in anthropometric variables and heart rate frequency. This study demonstrated that adapted basketball training is an adequate stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and sport skills performance of adolescents with mild MR. The advantage of this type of adaptive training program is that it does not require a large financial input, but only the engagement of a qualified and dedicated physical education professor.

Open access

Dragan Zdravković, Jovana Kostić, Jelena Radović, Aleksandar Kostić, Milena Potić Floranović, Ana Ristić Petrović, Aleksandra Ignjatović, Aleksandar Tasić, Nataša Miladinović Tasić and Suzana Otašević

Summary

The first line of defence in parasitic infection is the innate immune system. On the other hand, adaptive immune system posseses numerous mechanisams of hummoral and cellular immunity.

Cellular immunity in a helminth infection is characterised by Th2 immune response. Considering the fact that the aim of a parasite is not to kill its host, the majority of parasites are highly addapted to the life inside the host, and succesefully avoid or limit its deffences. A special signifficance of the parasite as a potential pathogen is its possibility to escape immunity. Numerous helminths are releasing different substances that are acting as lymphocyte suppressors and macrophage inactivators and they are capable of destroying antibodies. They have a possibility of camouflage, sequestration and surface shell peeling with the aim to avoid immune response. Latest research in the field of immunology has revealed the significance of CD40 co-stimumlating protein of antigen presenting cells in the immune response to parasitic infection.

Immune response in the course of parasitic infestion is important in pathogenesis of helminthioses.

Open access

Zoran Milanović, Goran Sporiš, Nic James, Nebojša Trajković, Aleksandar Ignjatović, Hugo Sarmento, Athos Trecroci and Bruno Miguel Borges Mendes

Abstract

The popularity of female soccer is increasing as well as the number of females playing soccer. Similarly, over the last twenty or so years, research in soccer has increased significantly, but a large disparity exists in the volume of studies involving male and female players. As a consequence of this, female players remain less well understood compared to males. The purpose of the present narrative review was to describe morphological characteristics, physiological demands, physical abilities and injuries in female soccer players. Physiological demands are similar between men’s and women’s soccer, but competitive women’s matches were characterized by nearly 33% less distance covered, although at higher intensity levels (maximum speeds greater than 15 km/h) than typically found in the men’s game. Sub-elite female players also tended to run less at higher intensity levels at the end of both halves in comparison with elite female players. High intensity running is an important factor of success in soccer since many critical moments of the game occur under this condition. The ability to rapidly change direction also determined elite, sub-elite and amateur levels. The implementation of functional training, which focused on soccer-specific drills and plyometric exercises, to improve explosive power, may improve conditioning in female soccer players as well as decrease the risk of injuries which was 3-8 times higher in females compared to males. This review presents an in-depth overview of the most influential factors for determining success in female soccer.